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Table 1 Overview on all sites and samples (additional information given in Additional file 2: Supplementary Table 1 and [1])

From: Taxonomic and functional analyses of intact microbial communities thriving in extreme, astrobiology-relevant, anoxic sites

Sampling sites: types and locations Sample names Relevant chemical and physical extreme characteristics (example analogue Martian site)
Sulfidic springs (Germany) Sippenauer Moor Sulfidic spring SM; sulfidic spring SM* Anoxic, low in organics, sulfur-rich, low temperature (10°C, Noachian sulfur cycling at Meridian Planum and across Noachian Mars)
Islinger Mühlbach Sulfidic spring IM; sulfidic spring IM*
Hypersaline environment (Boulby mine, UK) Sampling site 1 Hypersaline environment Anoxic, low in organics, hypersaline (Terra Sirenium; anoxic brine slopes)
Acidic lake (Lake Grænavatn, Iceland) Sampling site 1 Acidic lake SS1; acidic lake SS1* Anoxic, low in organics, basaltic environment (acidic lake), acidic (pH 2–3), (water-rock interactions at Jezero Crater; Meridiani Planum)
Sampling site 3 Acidic lake SS3; acidic lake SS3*
Acidic river (Rio Tinto, Spain) Lago Peligroso Acidic river LP; acidic river LP*
Galdierias Acidic river Gal; acidic river Gal*
Permafrost setting (Herschel Island, Canada and Yedoma, Russia (SOB-14)) SlpD14-PS1-11 Permafrost SlpD14-1; permafrost SlpD14-1* Low temperature (< 0°C, anoxic; Planum Boreum)
SlpD14-PS3-11 Permafrost SlpD14-3; permafrost SlpD14-3*
SOB-14-06-A-37 Permafrost SOB; permafrost SOB*
TSD-14-IW1-01 Permafrost TSD; permafrost TSD*
Additional samples (retrieved during Mars landing simulation campaign)
Kaunertaler Glacier (Austria) Sampling site 1 Glacier SS1; glacier SS1* Low temperature (< 0 °C, Planum Boreum)
Sampling site 2 Glacier SS2; glacier SS2*
  1. (*) in the sample abbreviations indicates pre-treatment of the samples with propidium monoazide (PMA). The sample “hypersaline environment” was not subjected to PMA treatment, as PMA treatment is inefficient in high-salt samples [7]. Samples used for shotgun metagenomics analyses are printed in bold