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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population by sex

From: Associations between habitual diet, metabolic disease, and the gut microbiota using latent Dirichlet allocation

  Total Men Women
n = 1992 n = 969 n = 1023
Continuous variables Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
 Age (years) 60.37 12.24 60.83 12.53 59.94 11.95
 Waist circumference (cm) 96.95 14.26 102.91 12.28 91.31 13.71
 BMI (kg/m2) 27.85 5.01 28.30 4.52 27.43 5.40
 HDL-c (mmol/l) 1.70 0.49 1.50 0.40 1.89 0.49
 LDL-c (mmol/l) 3.48 0.92 3.45 0.90 3.51 0.94
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.59 1.02 5.43 1.00 5.75 1.01
 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.39 0.83 1.56 0.98 1.24 0.63
Categorical variables % n % n % n
 Education
  < 13 years 65.1 1297 60.2 583 69.8 714
  ≥ 13 years 34.8 693 39.7 385 30.1 308
  NA 0.1 2 0.1 1 0.1 1
 Physical activity
  Active 57.4 1143 55.4 537 59.2 606
  Inactive 42.6 849 44.6 432 40.8 417
 Smoker
  Current 15.2 302 15.7 152 14.7 150
  Ex- 38.6 769 45.5 441 32.1 328
  Never 46.2 921 38.8 376 53.3 545
 Diabetes
  Normal glucose tolerance 47.8 952 37.4 362 57.7 590
  Prediabetes 34.2 681 42.3 410 26.5 271
  UDM 4.2 84 5.2 50 3.3 34
  Prevalent T2DM 10.0 200 12.3 119 7.9 81
  Unknown/other 3.8 75 2.9 28 4.6 47
 Hypertension
  Normal blood pressure 60.3 1202 55.3 536 65.1 666
  Known HTN, controlled 26.3 523 26.6 258 35.9 265
  Known HTN, uncontrolled 6.8 136 8.4 81 5.4 55
  Known HTN, not treated 4.0 80 5.7 55 2.4 25
  Undiagnosed HTN 2.5 50 3.9 38 1.2 12
  NA 0.1 1 0.1 1 0.0 0
 Lipid-lowering medication (yes) 16.5 328 19.4 188 13.7 140
  1. SD, standard deviation; BMI, body mass index; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein; UDM, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; HTN, hypertension