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Fig. 3 | Microbiome

Fig. 3

From: β-glucan attenuates cognitive impairment via the gut-brain axis in diet-induced obese mice

Fig. 3

Long-term β-glucan supplementation improved PTP1B-IRS-pAKT-pGSK3β-pTau and synapse in the hippocampus of HFFD-induced obese mice. a The protein level of PTP1B in the hippocampus (n = 6). bd Protein levels of p-IRS-1/IRS-1, p-Akt/Akt, and p-GSK3β/GSK3β (n = 6). e The protein level of p-Tau/Tau in the hippocampus (n = 4–6). f The ultrastructure of synapses on the electron micrograph in the hippocampus CA1 region of mice fed with different diets (scale bar 500 nm). The enlarged images of the second row were from the first row in the area indicated with a dotted line box (scale bar 250 nm). g and h Image analysis of the thickness of PSD and the width of the synaptic cleft (n = 3). PSD, postsynaptic density; SC, synaptic cleft; SV, synaptic vesicle. i and j The protein levels of SYN and PSD95. Values are mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 vs. control (Con). #p < 0.05 vs. high-fat and fiber-deficient (HFFD)

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