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Fig. 4 | Microbiome

Fig. 4

From: Distinct actions of the fermented beverage kefir on host behaviour, immunity and microbiome gut-brain modules in the mouse

Fig. 4

Fr1 modulates serotonergic signalling in the colon, but not ileum. Ileal (ac) and colonic (df) tissues were quantified for 5HIAA and serotonin (5-HT) levels using HPLC. The 5HIAA/5-HT ratio was subsequently calculated. All data were normally distributed and analysed using a one-way ANOVA, followed by a Dunnett’s post hoc test. Significant differences are depicted as: **p < 0.01; milk control compared to kefir supplementation, $p < 0.05, $$p < 0.01 and $$$p < 0.001; Undisturbed control compared to milk control. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 11–12). Dots on each graph represent individual animals

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