Phylogeny and resistance phenotypes of ARB isolated from the Han River. a Phylum-level composition of ARB isolates collected from each sample. The plot on the right shows the relative proportions of bacterial phyla among the metagenome contigs carrying ARGs. b Principal component analysis (PCA) plot of resistance phenotypes of ARB. PCA was performed for all ARB isolates based on the Euclidean distances in phenotypic profiles composed of inhibition zone diameters determined by disc diffusion assay. c PCA plots based on the resistance phenotypes of upstream and downstream isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. d Effect sizes for the differences in inhibition zone diameter (IZD) between upstream and downstream isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The bottom plots display the effect sizes for the metagenome-wide ARG densities against the corresponding antibiotic classes. Negative effect sizes indicate decreased IZD of downstream isolates compared to upstream ones.