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Table 1 Baseline subject’s characteristics

From: Evolution of the gut microbiome following acute HIV-1 infection

  Recent HIV-1 infection Chronic HIV-1 infection HIV-Negative p value
ART-naive On ART RHI vs neg Overall
N = 202 49 71 27 55   
Female gender 32 (65%) 52 (73%) 15 (55%) 43 (78%) 0.189 0.154
Age (years) 26 (20; 30) 35 (29; 45.5) 42 (36.5; 46.5) 25 (21; 37) 0.210 < 0.001
Weight (kg) 55 (49; 62) 63 (53.5; 68.5) 61 (60; 68.5) 58.5 (52; 67) 0.093 0.007
Height (cm) 160 (155; 169.7) 160 (154.2; 164) 164 (157.5; 167.5) 163.9 (160; 170.8) 0.192 0.025
BMI 21 (19.1; 23.5) 23.7 (21; 27.6) 23.3 (21.5; 25) 22.2 (18.5; 25) 0.637 < 0.001
Pregnancy 3 (6.1%) 0 0 7 (12.7%) 0.730 0.003
CD4+ T cell/mm3 572 (409; 677) 533 (430.5; 726) 460 (366; 594.5) 928 (741; 1142.8) < 0.001 < 0.001
CD8+ T cell/mm3 1229 (740; 1683) 988 (763.5; 1304) 834 (657.5; 1130) 591 (387.5; 689.7) < 0.001 < 0.001
CD4+/CD8+ 0.42 (0.23; 0.70) 0.56 (0.38; 0.79) 0.52 (0.33; 0.88) 1.65 (1.21; 2.24) < 0.001 < 0.001
HIV-1 RNA at timepoint 1 (copies/mL) 108,220 (31,898; 273,650) 33,400 (7288; 105,200) 75 (75; 272.5) < 0.001
HIV-1 RNA at screening (copies/ml) 2,752,700 (179,220; 15,078,000)
Time since HIV-1-diagnosis, days 1344 (977; 1737) 1814 (1463; 2302) 0.018
Time on ART, days 1257 (678; 1640)
Fiebig stage at screening* III 24 (49%)  
IV 7 (14.2%)  
V 7 (14.2%)  
VI 11 (22.6%)  
White blood cells 5.8 (4.4; 6.7) 5.2 (4.2; 6.4) 3.7 (3.2; 5) 5.2 (4.4; 6.5) 0.413 < 0.001
Hemoglobin 12.1 (10.9; 13.1) 11.8 (10.4; 12.7) 11.4 (10.8; 12.7) 12.3 (11.6; 13.2) 0.409 0.114
Hematocrite 36.9 (33.5; 39.8) 35.6 (32.7; 38.5) 34.4 (33; 38) 37.7 (34.7; 40.1) 0.320 0.044
Platelets 184.5 (140.7; 230.7) 205 (174.5; 258) 192 (173.5; 216) 226 (185; 265.5) 0.004 0.028
Hepatitis B 4 (8.1%) 2 (2.8%) 3 (11.1%) 1 (1.8%) 0.173 0.125
Syphilis 2 (4.1%) 0 1 (3.7%) 4 (7.3%) 0.682 0.089
Diarrhea, previous week 7 (14.3%) 3 (4.2%) 1 (3.7%) 4 (7.3%) 0.343 0.214
Temperature (°C) 36.3 (36.2; 36.5) 36.4 (36.2; 36.4) 36.4 (36.2; 36.4) 36.2 (36.1; 36.5) 0.956 0.509
Fever, previous 24 h 7 (14.3%) 3 (4.2%) 1 (3.7%) 3 (5.4%) 0.186 0.186
Ritchie test 2 (4.1%) 2 (2.8%) 0 1 (1.81%) 0.600 0.864
Entamoeba hystolitica 2 (4.1%) 6 (8.4%) 1 (3.7%) 2 (3.6%) 1 0.733
Giardia spp 2 (4.1%) 2 (2.8%) 0 5 (9.1%) 0.438 0.236
Cryptosporidium spp 0 2 (2.8%) 0 0 1 0.635
Clostridium difficile 2 (4.1%) 0 1 (3.7%) 1 (1.8%) 0.602 0.458
Strongyloides 1 (2.0%) 0 0 1 (1.8%) 1 0.636
Malaria, prev. month 7 (14.3%) 1 (1.4%) 0 9 (16.4%) 1 < 0.001
Current malaria test 2 (4.1%) 1 (1.4%) 0 0 0.071
Malaria test severity 3 (1.5; 3) 4 (4; 4) NA NA 0.071
  1. Differences in continuous variables were evaluated using ANOVA test (except for the time since HIV-1 diagnosis, which is evaluated using a Student T test). Differences in categorical variables were tested using the Fisher's test. The statistical significance threshold was set to P = 0.05
  2. *Fiebig stage determination at screening visit is described in [30]. Malaria test was only performed in subjects reporting febrile symptoms. Malaria severity is measured in a scale of 1 to 5, from light to severe