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Fig. 1 | Microbiome

Fig. 1

From: Species-specific enhancement of enterohemorrhagic E. coli pathogenesis mediated by microbiome metabolites

Fig. 1

Microbiome metabolites recapitulate species-specific tolerance in Colon Chips. a A schematic representation of the experimental design illustrating how human or mouse intestinal microbiome metabolites were added to the intestinal channel (red) of optically clear, human Colon Chips that are lined by primary human colon epithelial cells (Epi) and directly opposed to a second parallel vascular microchannel (blue) in which HIMVECs (Endo.) are cultured; the two channels are separated by a thin, porous, ECM-coated membrane; F-actin filaments in epithelial and endothelial cells were stained with Phalloidin (magenta) and nuclei with DAPI (white). bd Analysis of EHEC-induced epithelial injury on-chip. b Representative differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the colonic epithelium in the presence of Hmm or Mmm in the presence or absence of EHEC (bar, 100 μm). c Pseudo-colored images of the entire colon epithelium within the upper channel of the Colon Chip (yellow) cultured in the presence of Hmm or Mmm with or without EHEC (dark regions indicate lesion areas). d Quantification of epithelial lesion areas under the experimental conditions described in b, c. Epithelial lesion defined as regions in which cells normally contained within a continuous intact epithelium have fully detached from the ECM-coated membrane and their neighboring cells, thus, leaving exposed regions of the membrane below. e Changes in levels of various indicated cytokines released into the vascular channel of the Colon Chips by cells cultured under the conditions described in b, c. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ****p < 0.0001

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