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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: The unsolved problem of otitis media in indigenous populations: a systematic review of upper respiratory and middle ear microbiology in indigenous children with otitis media

Study Reference Total no. of participants Age (years) Pneumococcal vaccination Study type Sample site Type of OM Analysis technique
Cross-sectional Retrospective cross-sectional Prospective longitudinal Retrospective longitudinal Nasopharynx Nose Middle ear fluid AOM AOMwP OME CSOM All types of OM Culture Extended culture qPCR Viral testing* Chlamydia testing 16S r RNA gene sequencing Biofilm°
Australian Indigenous
 1972, Stuart [46] 100 5–14                   
 1975, Stuart [45] 219 < 2.5                    
 1975, Copeman [44] 187 < 15                   
 1985, Dawson [55] 131 2–15                   
 1994, Leach [20] 41 < 0.75                   
 2003, Couzos [40] 147 < 15 ?                   
 2003, Stuart [49] 27 1–10                   
 2005, Gibney ^ [50] 31 < 8 ?                  
 2006, Leach^ [51] 21 < 1.5 α                    
 2007, Ashhurst-Smith [37] 50 1–10 ?                  
 2008, Leach [43] 97 1–15                  
 2008, Leach^ [54] 103 NR                   
 2009, Mackenzie^ [52] 148 < 2 α                    
 2010, Morris ± [53] 320 0.5–6 ?                  
 2011, Binks^ [35] 115 < 2 α                 
 2012, Marsh± [56] 27 0.5–4 ?                    
 2013, Smith-Vaughan [48] 51 0.25–3.8 α                    
 2013, Stephen [42] 89 5–12 ?                   
 2012, Sun [36] 66 < 2 α                   
 2015, Jervis-Bardy [57] 11 3–10                   
 2015, Leach [47] 60 < 6                   
 2016, Leach [16] 651 < 6                   
Greenlandic Inuit
 1996, Homøe [34] 255 < 10                
 2009, Homøe [39] 10 2–5                 
Alaskan Inuit
 1999, Parkinson [38] 128 < 5                   
  1. For the longitudinal studies, data included in this review was per specimen, not per child
  2. AOM acute otitis media, AOMwP acute otitis media with perforated tympanic membrane, CSOM chronic suppurative otitis media, OME otitis media with effusion, No number
  3. *Viral testing by qPCR [35] or PCR and immunofluorescent anti-body testing [11], Chlamydia spp. testing by qPCR [11] and immunofluorescent anti-body testing [55], °biofilm testing by immersion microscopy Gram-staining, PNA-FISH (for S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Escherichia coli, and eubacterial probe) and confocal laser scanning microscopy, ^overlapping participants, ±overlapping participants, −prior to pneumococcal vaccination being available, ?vaccination status not reported. αPart of the cohort received pneumococcal vaccination, the results were not stratified in relation to vaccination status