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Table 1 Links between the disturbed gut microbiome and their possible immune signaling pathway in BD patients

From: A metagenomic study of the gut microbiome in Behcet’s disease

Disturbed gut microbiome Enriched group Species Possible PAMP Possible PRP Possible related immune cells Possible related immune cytokine Reference
SRB BD Bilophila spp. LPS, H2S TLR4 Upregulation Th1 cells IFN-γ [7, 39, 60]
Opportunistic pathogens BD Stenotrophomonas spp., Actinomyces spp.,Corynebacterium spp., Paraprevotella spp. T3SS, T4SS, LPS, PGN TLR2, TLR4 Upregulation Th1 and Th17 cells Unknown [5, 18, 34, 35, 50, 56]
BPB N Clostridium spp. Butyrate TLR-MyD88 Unregulation Treg cell IL-10 [16, 46, 66]
Methanogens N Methanoculleus spp., Methanomethylophilus spp. Methane TLR-MyD88 Macrophages IL-10 [32]
  1. SRB sulfate-reducing bacteria; BPB butyrate-producing bacteria; PAMP pathogen-associated molecular pattern; PRP pattern recognition receptors; BD Behcet’s disease; N normal controls; PGN peptidoglycan; LPS lipopolysaccharides; TLR Toll-like receptors; H2S hydrogen sulfide; T3SS type III secretion system; T4SS type IV secretion system