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Table 1 Influence of chemotherapeutic treatments on intestinal microbiota profiles

From: Pharmacomicrobiomics: exploiting the drug-microbiota interactions in anticancer therapies

Chemotherapeutic treatment Microbiota modifications Reference
5-Fluorouracil Increase in Gram-negative anaerobes
Increased translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes
Increase in Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli and decrease in Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp. [42]
Cycles I and II: high-dose cytarabine, daunorubicin, and etoposide; cycle III: amsacrine, high-dose cytarabine, and etoposide; cycle IV: mitoxantrone and high-dose cytarabine Lower total number and diversity of intestinal bacteria; decrease in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium cluster XIVa, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Bifidobacterium spp.; increase in pathogenic enterococci and decrease in streptococci [43]
Cyclophosphamide Decrease in Clostridium cluster XIVa, Roseburia, Lachnospiraceae, Coprococcus, lactobacilli, and enterococci
Increased translocation of Gram-positive species to mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen
Increased Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci
Increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio
Increased Actinobacteria, Bacteroidia, Alphaproteobacteria, Lachnospiraceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Staphylococcaceae; decreased Bacteroidetes, Bacilli, Clostridia, Coriobacteriia, Mollicutes, Prevotellaceae, S24-7, Alcaligenaceae, and Rhodospirillaceae; disappeared Verrucomicrobia and Streptococcaceae [45]
Irinotecan Increased Clostridium cluster XI (including Peptoclostridium difficile) and Enterobacteriaceae [46]
High-dose carmustine, etoposide, aracytine, and melphalan Increased Proteobacteria, decreased Firmicutes and Actinobacteria [47]
Gemcitabine Increased Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Akkermansia muciniphila, Escherichia coli and Peptoclostridium difficile; decreased Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidales, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroides acidifaciens and Lactobacillus animalis [48]