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Table 1 Clinical variables of GDM and normoglycaemic women in the third trimester pregnancy

From: Gestational diabetes is associated with change in the gut microbiota composition in third trimester of pregnancy and postpartum

  GDM (n = 50) Normoglycaemic (n = 161) P
Descriptive measurements
 Age (years) 34.4 (4.4) 33.3 (4.6) 0.1
 Gestational week at examination 28.7 (1.4) 28.4 (1.1) 0.1
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 118 (11.2) 111 (10.6) 0.001
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 71 (8.1) 67 (8.5) 0.001
 Height (cm) 168.6 (6.6) 169.7 (5.6) 0.2
 Weight (kg) 91.8 (14.1) 87.3 (14.6) 0.06
 Pre-pregnancy weight (kg) (n = 190) 83.5 (16.0) (n = 43) 78.48 (15.2) (n = 145) 0.06
 Pre-pregnancy BMI kg/m2(n = 189) 29.3 (5.6) (n = 43) 27.1 (4.8) (n = 144) 0.02
 Weight gain (kg) 7.4 (4.7) 8.8 (7.5) 0.3
 Normal and excessive weight gain (n) 3 excessive (13.0%)
20 normal (87.0%)
17 excessive (16.2%)
88 normal (83.8%)
1
Biochemistry
 Glucose at time 0 min (mmol/L) 5.2 (0.4) 4.6 (0.2) 5.8 × 10−31
 Glucose at time 30 min (mmol/L) 8.1 (1.0) 6.9 (0.9) 2.7 × 10−12
 Glucose at time 60 min (mmol/L) 8.9 (1.3) 7.1 (1.2) 1.9 × 10−15
 Glucose at time 120 min (mmol/L) 7.9 (1.4) 6.2 (1.0) 5.0 × 10−17
 Insulin at time 0 min (pmol/L) 112.1 (40.6) 82.7 (39.6) 3.3 × 10−5
 Insulin at time 30 min (pmol/L) 519.7 (1.6) 504.3 (1.7) 0.7
 Insulin at time 60 min (pmol/L) 698.0 (1.8) 583.9 (1.7) 0.058
 Insulin at time 120 min (pmol/L) 750.5 (1.8) 482.2 (1.7) 6.3 × 10−6
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 34.0 (3.1) 33.0 (2.8) 0.02
 HOMA-IR 2.1 (0.8) 1.5 (0.7) 1.3 × 10−6
 Matsuda index 3.5 (1.5) 5.3 (1.6) 3.0 × 10−8
 Disposition index 4.1 (1.6) 7.8 (1.6) 9.2 × 10−12
 Insulinogenic index 1.2 (1.6) 1.5 (1.6) 0.004
 hsCRP (mg/L) 4.4 (1.9) 3.8 (2.2) 0.2
  1. Data presented as mean (SD). For continuous variables, P was calculated by two-tailed t test, and for categorical variables, P was calculated by chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test
  2. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, GA gestational age, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostatic model of insulin resistance, hsCRP high sensitive C-reactive protein