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Fig. 3 | Microbiome

Fig. 3

From: Metabolic retroconversion of trimethylamine N-oxide and the gut microbiota

Fig. 3

Influence of TMAO on growth and metabolism of pure cultures of gut bacteria. a Representative growth curves for isolates grown in the presence and absence of TMAO. Red lines, TMAO-supplemented cultures; blue lines, negative controls. Data are shown as mean ± SD (n = 3). b Biplot showing production of various metabolites when isolates were grown in the presence of TMAO. Summary of data from Additional file 1: Table S2. The larger a circle, the more of the metabolite produced by an isolate. c Differences in metabolites produced when caecal and faecal isolates of Escherichia coli were grown in the presence (+) and absence (−) of 1% TMAO. Adjusted (Benjamini–Hochberg) P values indicate the caecal isolates were significantly different from the faecal isolates for a particular metabolite. d Lactate production by lactic acid bacteria was increased in the presence of TMAO. Enterobacteriaceae, n = 20; Bifidobacteriaceae, n = 17; Streptococcaceae, n = 7; Enterococcaceae, n = 5. Members of the Enterococcaceae and Streptococcaceae are homofermenters (produce only lactic acid from glucose fermentation), whereas the Bifidobacteriaceae are heterofermenters (produce ethanol, CO2, and lactic acid from glucose fermentation), though it should be noted the bifidobacteria included in this study were grown on raffinose-containing media. Red, TMAO-containing medium; blue, negative control. *Statistically significantly different from its negative control (adjusted P value < 0.05)

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