Formula diet enhances the bacterial tryptamine biosynthesis relative to sow diet in porcine neonates. a The bar graph shows tryptamine levels in diets (n = 3-4/diet group), distal colon contents and distal colon tissue (b) The bar graph displays indole acetic acid (IAA) in distal colon (DC) (and duodenum (DD) contents (n
sow = 7, n
soy = 9, n
milk = 11). The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test (Tukey’s) (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, for formula diet in comparison to sow-fed; #
p < 0.05, for milk diet in comparison to soy-fed, $
p < 0.0001 comparison of tryptamine levels in diets versus contents, and in tissue versus contents independent of treatment group).