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Fig. 6 | Microbiome

Fig. 6

From: Resistant starch can improve insulin sensitivity independently of the gut microbiota

Fig. 6

Altered expression of macrophage markers in the adipose tissues of C3H mice fed a Western diet supplemented with resistant starches for 8 weeks. ad F4/80 and CD11c expression in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT). eh Flow cytometry analysis of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) isolated from the SAT of conventionalized C3H mice. e Percentage of macrophages (F4/80+ CD11b+). f Percentage of M1 (CD11c+) macrophages. g Percentage of M2 (CD206+) macrophages. h Ratio of M1/M2, using CD11c as a M1 marker and CD206 as a M2 marker. LFD low-fat diet, WD Western diet, RS2 WD with resistant starch 2, RS4 WD with resistant starch 4. $ p = 0.11, # p = 0.05–0.07, *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001 versus WD fed mice of the same microbial status (one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s post hoc tests). Analysis performed after normalization by log-transformation for d (GF data) and f. Microbial status significantly impacted F4/80 expression in SAT (analysis of all eight treatments using two-way ANOVA). Mean ± SEM. ad N = 5–8. eh N = 14–15 except for the LFD where N = 6

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