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Table 1 Summary of methods used in King George Island studies

From: Antimicrobial resistance in Antarctica: is it still a pristine environment?

Study Initial culture media Antibiotic susceptibility test Molecular analyses
Hernádez et al. (2012) [56] ChromoCult® Coliform Agar ES Uniselect4 plates Disc diffusion: EUCAST q-RT PCR 3 primer sets
Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)
Tam et al. (2015) [30] LB, R2A and Marine agar 2216 Disc diffusion using prescience/absence of inhibition Colony screening by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rDNA
Rabbia et al. (2016) [58] ChromoCult® Coliform Agar ES Disc diffusion: CLSI Fingerprint analysis using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)
Yuan et al. (2019) [39] LB media Disc diffusion: CLSI Illumina HiSeq 2000 or 2500 100bp PE
Na et al. (2019) [47] None None 16S rRNA plus qRT-PCR of 4 ARGs
Hernández et al. (2019) [57] ChromoCult® Coliform Agar ES Disc diffusion: CLSI None
Laganà et al. (2019) [61] Marine agar 2216 Kirby Bauer test: EUCAST and CLSI 16S rRNA plus restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis
Jara et al. (2020) [51] R2A agar Disc diffusion: CLSI 16S rRNA plus PCR of 20 ARGs
Na et al. (2021) [63] Beef extract peptone agar Disc diffusion: CLSI 16S rDNA plus qRT-PCR of circa 300 primer sets for ARGs