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Table 1 Data on the administered antibiotics and their relationship with the PM2.5 resistome in the inpatient building

From: Inhalable antibiotic resistomes emitted from hospitals: metagenomic insights into bacterial hosts, clinical relevance, and environmental risks

Antibiotic consumption Agy β-lactams FQs Gypt MLs TCs
Aminoglycosides Broad-spectrum Carbapenems Cephalosporins Fluoroquinolones Glycopeptides Macrolides Tetracyclines
#DDDs
(monthly basis)
Summer 1740±280 4830±583 1680±73.3 13200±1310 15500±1330 365±55.8 8900±1100 2620±1100
19700±746
Winter 1470±173 4350±176 1630±132 12600±748 17400±713 345±50.2 7910±1100 3050±541
18600±549
#DDDs/patient
(monthly basis)
Summer 49.4±5.5 7.61±2.52 5.88±0.19 6.94±1.10 19.1±1.32 3.71±0.60 19.7±1.27 112±1.86
6.92±1.95
Winter 50.7±3.5 8.10±0.21 5.87±0.73 7.48±0.44 19.10±0.38 3.49±0.45 23.3±3.01 136±28.3
7.42±0.29
Correlations with corresponding ARGs PDDDs = 0.35
PIntensity = 0.50
PDDDs = 0.65
*PIntensity = 0.02 (RIntensity = − 0.90)
PDDDs = 0.13
PIntensity = 0.80
PDDDs = 0.42
PIntensity = 0.51
PDDDs = 0.71
PIntensity = 0.56
PDDDs = 0.41
PIntensity = 0.29
PDDDs = 0.91
PIntensity= 0.71
PDDDs = 0.56
PIntensity = 0.42
PDDDs = 0.56; PIntensity=0.49
Correlations with corresponding PARB PDDDs = 0.11
PIntensity = 0.51
PDDDs = 0.65
*PIntensity = 0.0043 (RIntensity = − 0.95)
PDDDs = 0.25
PIntensity = 0.79
PDDDs = 0.41
PIntensity = 0.47
*PDDDs = 0.04
(RDDDs = − 0.83)
PIntensity = 0.08
PDDDs = 0.10
*PIntensity = 0.05
(RIntensity = 0.79)
PDDDs = 0.32
PIntensity = 0.39
PDDDs = 0.31
*PIntensity = 0.05
(RIntensity = 0.81)
PDDDs = 0.48; PIntensity = 0.07
  1. # Defined daily dose values (DDDs) representing consumption and antibiotic drugs were calculated according to the WHO guidelines; the intensity of the antibiotic treatments is shown by DDDs normalized to the number of patients to whom they were administered. Considering the limited size of the data (each season = 3), correlations were analyzed by covering the whole period of study, and significant ones were denominated with an asterisk and correlation coefficient values
  2. † Data were retrieved from short-read mapping results, to represent the abundances of ARGs in hospital air PM2.5
  3. ‡ Data were retrieved from bacterial genome-binning results, to represent the contents of different types of potential antibiotic-resistant bacteria (PARB) in hospital air PM2.5