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Table 2 Characteristics of the digestive liquids. The data show a mean from three replicates with ± SD, for each the analyses were performed in duplicate. Tukey’s HSD test was applied after ANOVA variance analysis to compare statistical significance; for detailed comparisons see Additional file 4

From: Dynamics of dark fermentation microbial communities in the light of lactate and butyrate production

Experiment Collection day pH Acetic acid Lactic acid Propionic acid Butyric acid Ethanol
g/L
Experiment M 3 4.0 ± 0.0 0.8 ± 0,2 2.6 ± 0.4 a 0.4 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.5 5.5 ± 1.9
6 3.9 ± 0.1 # 0.8 ± 0,1 3.9 ± 0.4 b 0.5 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 $ 5.6 ± 1.5 @
9 3.7 ± 0.1 ## 1.0 ± 0.2 5.2 ± 0.3 a 0.4 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.6 $$ 3.8 ± 2.1 @@
12 3.6 ± 0,03 1.2 ± 0.3 6.3 ± 0.7 a, b 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.3 3.1 ± 0.6
15 3.7 ± 0.03 1.0 ± 0.2 5.2 ± 0.7 a 0.3 ± 0.03 0.4 ± 0.2 4.1 ± 0.4
18 3.6 ± 0.03 1.0 ± 0.1 5.6 ± 0.2 a, b 0.5 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.5
Experiment ML 3 4.4 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.2 10.4 ± 1.5 0.5 ± 0.1 0.03 ± 0.01 d 6.7 ± 1.1 e
6 4.4 ± 0.2 # 0.7 ± 0.4 12.0 ± 2.1 c, & 0.6 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 1.7 $ 5.2 ± 0.7 @
9 4.5 ± 0.1 ## 0.8 ± 0.1 10.0 ± 0.5 && 0.5 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 1.0 $$ 3.4 ± 1.1 e, @@
12 4.5 ± 0.03 0.7 ± 0.2 8.3 ± 2.5 0.7 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.6 4.2 ± 1.5
15 4.6 ± 0.04 0.7 ± 0.2 6.3 ± 0.6 c 0.6 ± 0.1 3.2 ± 0.8 d 2.7 ± 0.6 e
18 4.6 ± 0.04 1.1 ± 0.3 6.8 ± 1.2 c 0.7 ± 0.1 3.2 ± 0.7 d 2.8 ± 1.1 e
Experiment MLA 3 4.6 ± 0.01 f 3.8 ± 0.4 11.2 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.03 g 5.9 ± 0.6 h
6 5.4 ± 0.1 f , # 1.4 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.8 & 0.6 ± 0.01 7.1 ± 0.5 g, $ 0.6 ± 0.04 h, @
9 5.5 ± 0.01 f, ## 2.7 ± 1.4 4.4 ± 6.5 && 0.6 ± 0.02 6.5 ± 3.5 g, $$ 0.9 ± 0.7 h, @@
12 4.7 ± 0.2 3.1 ± 0.9 5.2 ± 1.8 0.6 ± 0.1 4.5 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 0.8 h
15 5.1 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 2.3 0.4 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 1.6 0.6 ± 0.1 h
18 4.6 ± 0.03 6.3 ± 1.8 8.8 ± 2.2 0.5 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.1 h
Experiment LA 3 6.6 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.2 i 0.1 ± 0.04 1.5 ± 0.7 j 0.1 ± 0.03
6 7.0 ± 0.1 # 1.7 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.2 I, & 0.2 ± 0.1 3.5 ± 0.8 j, $ 0.1 ± 0.1 @
9 7.2 ± 0.1 ## 1.7 ± 0.1 0.02 ± 0.01 I, && 0.2 ± 0.1 4.2 ± 0.2 j, $$ 0.04 ± 0.04 @@
12 7.2 ± 0.05 1.1 ± 0.4 0.5 ± 0.3 i 0.3 ± 0.1 3.8 ± 0.7 j 0.2 ± 0.03
15 7.3 ± 0.03 2.1 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.2 i 0.2 ± 0.0 4.0 ± 0.1 j 0.1 ± 0.04
18 7.3 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 1.0 0.2 ± 0.15 i 0.4 ± 0.04 3.8 ± 0.5 j 0.1 ± 0.03
Experiment SLA 3 4.6 ± 0.03 k 3.4 ± 0.1 10.4 ± 0.7 0.02 ±0.01 0.9 ± 0.2 l 5.8 ± 1.0 m
6 6.2 ± 0.04 k, # 0.3 ± 0.1 0. 7 ± 1.1 & 0.4 ± 0.2 7.0 ± 1.3 l, $ 1.1 ± 0.2 m, @
9 5.8 ±0.03 k, ## 2.2 ± 0.7 0.02 ± 0.01 && 0.5 ± 0.2 8.0 ± 0.6 l, $$ 0.4 ± 0.1 m, @@
12 4.7 ± 0.5 3.7 ± 0.7 4.4 ± 3.9 0.2 ± 0.1 4.4 ± 3.6 0.7 ± 0.1 m
15 4.8 ± 0.5 3.1 ± 2.1 6.7 ± 6.9 0.3 ± 0.2 4.7 ± 3.2 0.8 ± 0.8 m
18 5.1 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 2.5 5.9 ± 5.1 0.3 ± 0.1 5.4 ± 4.1 0.3 ± 0.1 m
  1. Results of the Tukey’s HSD test:
  2. a day 3 vs day 9, p = 0.0005; day 3 vs day 12, p = 0.0002; day 3 vs day 15, p = 0,0005; day 3 vs day 18, p = 0,0003
  3. b day 6 vs day 12, p = 0.0009; day 6 vs day 18, p = 0.02
  4. c day 6 vs day 15, p = 0,01; day 6 vs day 18, p = 0,02
  5. d day 3 vs day 15, p = 0.01; day3 vs day 18, p = 0.01
  6. e day 3 vs day 9, p = 0.02; day 3 vs day 15 p = 0.006; day 3 vs day 18, p = 0.007
  7. f day 3 vs day 6, p = 0.0002; day vs day 9, p = 0.0002
  8. g day 3 vs day 6, p = 0.002; day vs day 9, p = 0.004
  9. h day 3 vs days 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18, p = 0.0002
  10. i day 3 vs day 6, p = 0.0002; day 3 vs day 9, p = 0.0002; day 3 vs day 12, p = 0.0002; day 3 vs day 15, p = 00002; day 3 vs day 18, p = 0.0002
  11. j day 3 vs day 6, p = 0.009; day 3 vs day 9, p = 0.001; day 3 vs day 12, p = 0.003; day 3 vs day 15, p = 0.002; day 3 vs day 18, p = 0.003
  12. k day 3 vs day 6, p = 0.002; day vs day 9, p = 0.02
  13. l day 3 vs day 6, p = 0.0004; day vs day 9, p = 0.0003
  14. m day 3 vs days 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18, p = 0.0002
  15. # pH after 6 days: Exp. 1/M vs Exp. 2/ML, p = 0.001; Exp. 1/M vs Exp 3/MLA, 4/LA, 6/SLA, p = 0.0002; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 3/MLA, Exp. 4/LA, Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0002; Exp. 3/MLA vs Exp. 4/LA, Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0002; Exp. 4/LA vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0002
  16. ## pH after 9 days: Exp. 1/M vs Exp. 2/ML, Exp 3/MLA, 4/LA, 6/SLA, p = 0.0002; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 3/MLA, Exp. 4/LA, Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0002; Exp. 3/MLA vs Exp. 4/LA, p = 0.0002; Exp. 3/MLA vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0008; Exp. 4/LA vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0002
  17. $ butyrate concentration after 6 days: Exp. 1/M vs Exp. 3/MLA, Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0004; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 3/MLA, Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0004; Exp. 3/MLA vs Exp. 4/LA, p = 0.01; Exp. 4/LA vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.01
  18. $$ butyrate concentration after 9 days: Exp. 1/M vs Exp. 3/MLA, p = 0.01; Exp. 1/ML vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.003; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 3/MLA, p = 0.02; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.003
  19. & lactate concentration after 6 days: Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 3/SLA, Exp. 4/LA, Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0003
  20. && lactate concentration after 9 days: Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 4/LA, Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.03
  21. @ ethanol concentration after 6 days: Exp. 1/M vs Exp. 3/MLA, Exp. 4/LA, p = 0.0002; Exp. 1/M vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0003; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 3/MLA, p = 0.0003; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 4/LA, p = 0.0002; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.0005
  22. @@ ethanol concentration after 9 days: Exp. 1/M vs Exp. 4/LA, Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.02; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 4/LA, p = 0.03; Exp. 2/ML vs Exp. 6/SLA, p = 0.05