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Table 1 Studies on probiotics/prebiotics and appetite control in human and animals

From: From gut microbiota to host appetite: gut microbiota-derived metabolites as key regulators

  Human/animal Effects References
Probiotics
Lactobacillus paracasei Men Decreased food intake [220]
Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, magnesium stearate, and maltodextrin Women Decreased hunger score and emotional eating score by inhibiting NPY [221]
Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei Broiler chicken Decreased feed intake [222]
Hafnia alvei HA4597 High-fat-diet-fed obese mice Decreased feed intake by increasing ClpB production [223]
Lactobacillus brevis SBC883 Rats Increasing feed intake by increasing serotonin and ghrelin production [224]
Lactobacillus casei Children with diarrhea Improved appetite by altering gut microbiota (i.e. increased Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus) [225]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Larvae Increased feed intake by altering gut microbiota and neuropeptide production [226]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum Diet-induced obese mice Decreased feed intake by altering gut microbiota and decreasing intestinal permeability [227]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Obese women Decreased desire to eat [228]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Zebrafish Decreased appetite by altering gut microbiota [229]
Prebiotics
 Oligofructose-enriched inulin Children with overweight/obesity Decreased food intake by decreasing ghrelin and increasing PYY [56]
 Inulin-type fructans and/or whey protein Adults with overweight/obesity Decreased hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption by altering gut microbiota (i.e., increased Bifidobacterium) [230]
 Chicory Mice Induced satiety by altering gut microbiota (i.e., Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, Alloprevotella, Blautia) and increasing CCK and GLP-1 [231]
 Mannose oligosaccharide Diet-induced obese mice Suppressed appetite by altering gut microbiota (i.e., increased Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) and increased SCFAs production [232]
 Digestion-resistant maltodextrin/fructooligosaccharides Diet-induced obese rats Decreased energy intake by increasing GLP-1 production [233]