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Table 1 Factors affecting the composition of gut mycobiota

From: Intestinal mycobiota in health and diseases: from a disrupted equilibrium to clinical opportunities

Factors Composition of gut mycobiota References
Delivery method Natural birth Fungi from mother’s genital tract ↑
Russulales ↑
[37, 40,41,42]
C-section Fungi from maternal skin and surroundings ↑
Saccharomycetales ↑
Gestational age Preterm infants Fungal diversity ↓
Saccharomycetales ↑
Term infants Polyporales ↑
Russulales ↑
Environment Mice from Jackson Laboratory’s & Services (JAX) Basidiomycota ↑ [18, 43]
Mice from Weill Cornell Medicine (WCM-CE) Ascomycota ↑
SPF mice "rewilded" into the wild Candida
Season Spring Sclerotiniaceae ↑
Nectriaceae ↑
Summer Trichocomaceae ↑
Autumn Wallemiaceae ↑
Hypocreaceae ↑
Winter Devriesia ↑
Diet and nutrition Nutrition Pistachio and almond Penicillium spp.
Candida spp.
[1, 27, 44,45,46,47,48,49,50]
Carbohydrate-rich diet Candida
High-fat diet S. cerevisiae
Protein-rich diet Methanobrevibacter
2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (leucine derivative) Candida
Microbial metabolites of nutrients Short chain fatty acid (SCFAs) Aspergillus
Acetate Tomentella
Acetate and propionate Nephroma
Butyrate and total SCFAs Tomentella
Propionate Loreleia
Gender Female Mycosphaerellaceae [19]
Male Ascomycota
Metabolic disorder Obese Yeast fungi ↑ [27]
Eutrophic Filamentous fungi ↑
Maternal antibiotic exposure Saccharomycetales ↑ [37]
Species Gut Candida spp. only found in mammalian [44, 49]
Chenghua, Yorkshire, and Tibetan pigs have different fungal abundance
  1. “↑” indicates increase and “↓” indicates decrease