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Fig. 6 | Microbiome

Fig. 6

From: Trophic interactions as determinants of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community with cascading plant-promoting consequences

Fig. 6

Impacts of soil variables, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community, protists, and nematodes on AMF colonization, phosphorus transporter (expression of P transporter gene ZMPht1;6), and plant productivity as estimated using structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Based on random forest analyses, the significant predictors were chosen to perform the SEM analysis. The latent variables (soil properties, the AMF, protist and nematode community, and networks) inside the boxes were used to integrate the effects of multiple conceptually-related observed variables into a single-composite effect. Each observed variable is shown as normal font. Soil properties are represented by pH, soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The AMF community is represented by biomass, diversity (Shannon index), and composition (first principal coordinates, PCoA1). The protist community is represented by composition (PCoA1). The nematode community is represented by density and composition (PCoA1). The trophic co-occurrence networks between AMF, protist, and nematodes is represented by four modules indicated as module eigengenes. Plant productivity is the sum of root, shoot, and grain biomasses. Blue lines indicate positive relationships, and numbers associated with lines indicate the correlation coefficient. Widths of arrows indicate strength of significant standardized path coefficients. Paths with non-significant coefficients are presented as white lines. ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; *P < 0.05

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