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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants before and after 1 month of carnitine intake

From: Characterization of TMAO productivity from carnitine challenge facilitates personalized nutrition and microbiome signatures discovery

  Vegetarian pre-carnitine (n = 23) Vegetarian post-carnitine (n = 23) p value Omnivore pre-carnitine (n = 33) Omnivore post-carnitine (n = 33) p value
Female (%) 61 73
Age (years) 34.13 ± 1.70 29.79 ± 1.28
BMI (kg m-2) 22.40± 0.55 22.51 ± 0.58 0.124 21.78 ± 0.58 21.76 ± 0.57 0.712
Plasma
Glucose-AC (mg/dL) 69.39 ± 2.21 75.65 ± 3.23 0.071 75.21 ± 1.96 79.30 ± 1.23 0.048*
AST (U/L) 11.30 ± 1.04 13.04 ± 1.40 0.167 15.39 ± 1.22 14.06 ± 1.41 0.367
ALT (U/L) 7.22 ± 0.94 8.26 ± 1.21 0.335 10.97 ± 1.41 9.03 ± 0.91 0.064
BUN (mg/dL) 9.60 ± 0.65 15.64 ± 4.60 0.200 11.62 ± 0.51 12.02 ± 0.53 0.422
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.55 ± 0.03 0.51 ± 0.03 0.175 0.59 ± 0.02 0.61 ± 0.02 0.354
T-Cholesterol (mg/dL) 140.52 ± 4.27 144.30 ± 5.19 0.436 174.76 ± 5.39 178.94 ± 4.84 0.297
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 89.13 ± 11.31 97.96 ± 11.88 0.183 86.18 ± 10.15 80.58 ± 6.70 0.353
LDL-C (mg/dL) 75.13 ± 4.25 80.83 ± 4.55 0.100 97.42 ± 4.78 102.33 ± 4.84 0.154
CRP C (mg/dL) 0.06 ± 0.02 0.09 ± 0.03 0.307 0.19 ± 0.09 0.09 ± 0.02 0.292
TMAO (μM) 1.82± 0.21 2.49 ± 0.28 0.038* 3.05 ± 0.98 6.31 ± 1.47 0.029*
Carnitine (μM) 32.23 ± 1.25 34.55 ± 1.48 0.097 34.16 ± 1.20 32.86 ± 1.44 0.193
Urine
TMAO (nmol/mmol Cr) 33.98 ± 9.49 46.70 ± 6.19 0.160 53.62 ± 15.21 110.63 ± 26.21 0.015*
Carnitine (nmol/mmol Cr) 2.52 ± 0.63 8.43 ± 2.11 0.012* 15.76 ± 6.53 18.27 ± 5.92 0.777
  1. * P values were obtained for the comparison of vegetarian and omnivore participants before and after carnitine supplementation by using a paired t test. Values are expressed as the mean ± S.E.M. AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CRP C C-reactive protein, TMAO trimethylamine N-oxide