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Table 1 Study cohort metadata and genotype. This study cohort was extracted from the larger CDGEMM prospective longitudinal birth cohort study [33]

From: Multi-omics analysis reveals the influence of genetic and environmental risk factors on developing gut microbiota in infants at risk of celiac disease

  USA (n = 18) Italy (n = 13) Total (n = 31)
Gender (%)
 Male 11 (61.1) 7 (53.8) 18 (58.0)
 Female 7 (38.9) 6 (46.2) 13 (42.0)
Mode of delivery (%)
 Vaginal 11 (61.1) 7 (53.8) 18 (58.0)
 C-section 7 (38.9) 6 (46.2) 13 (42.0)
Feeding type (4–6 months of age) (%)
 Breastmilk only 12 (66.7) 4 (30.7) 16 (51.6)
 Formula only 5 (27.8) 6 (46.2) 11 (35.5)
 Both 1 (5.5) 3 (23.1) 4 (12.9)
Antibiotic exposure (%)
 At delivery (mother) 7 (38.9) 2 (15.4) 9 (29.0)
 At birth (infant) 2 (11.1) 2 (15.4) 4 (12.9)
 Before 6 months of age (infant) 0 (0.0) 4 (30.8) 4 (12.9)
Genotype (%)
 DQ2 homozygous 6 (33.3) 1 (7.7) 7 (22.6)
 DQ2 heterozygous 6 (33.3) 6 (46.2) 12 (38.7)
 DQ2/DQ8 3 (16.7) 2 (15.4) 5 (16.1)
 DQ8 1 (5.5) 1 (7.7) 2 (6.5)
 Negative 2 (11.1) 3 (23.1) 5 (16.1)
Relative with CD
 Mother 15 (83.3) 7 (53.8) 22 (70.9)
 Father 1 (5.5) 1 (7.7) 2 (6.5)
 Sibling 2 (11.1) 5 (38.4) 7 (22.6)
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