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Table 3 Differences in beta-diversity, using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix, between groups of low, medium and high use of antimicrobials (AM) for all AMs combined, and separately for amoxicillin, azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and phenoxymethylpenicillin, in all children and separately for boys and girls with PERMANOVA

From: Antimicrobial drug use in the first decade of life influences saliva microbiota diversity and composition

Prescriptions Pairwise (n) All children Boys (n = 375) Girls (n = 433)
P P P
All AM   0.033a 0.034a 0.416a
  Low (291)–Medium (392) 0.174 0.110 0.607
  Low (291)–High (125) 0.366 0.263 0.415
  Medium (392)–High (125) 0.569 0.808 0.325
Amoxicillin   0.094a 0.001a 0.487a
  Low (252)–Medium (402) 0.802 0.092 0.944
  Low (252)–High (154) 0.352 0.011 0.375
  Medium (402)–High (154) 0.757 0.288 0.569
Azithromycin   0.006a 0.024a 0.273a
  Low (278)–Medium (399) 0.067 0.075 0.092
  Low (278)–High (131) 0.219 0.252 0.256
  Medium (399)–High (131) 0.370 0.562 0.713
Amoxicillin-clavulanate   0.256a 0.877a 0.304a
  Low (389)–Medium (267) 0.897 0.778 0.876
  Low (389)–High (152) 0.202 0.281 0.633
  Medium (267)–High (152) 0.455 0.421 0.437
Phenoxymethylpenicillin   0.197a 0.504a 0.574a
  Low (568)–Medium (135) 0.655 0.710 0.708
  Low (568)–High (105) 0.187 0.410 0.276
  Medium (135)–High (105) 0.738 0.802 0.347
  1. Significant results in bold
  2. Adjusted for age, gender (not in gender-specific analysis), language and depth
  3. p values adjusted for all pairwise PERMANOVA analyses with Benjamini-Hochberg method
  4. aPERMANOVA analysis with all (low, medium and high) AM groups
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