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Table 2 Associations of antimicrobial (AM) prescriptions (all AMs, and for amoxicillin, azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and phenoxymethylpenicillin AMs separately) with alpha-diversity, using the Shannon index and inverse Simpson index, in all the participants and separately in boys and girls using linear regression analysis

From: Antimicrobial drug use in the first decade of life influences saliva microbiota diversity and composition

  Prescriptions of All participants Boys Girls
n Estimate SE p n Estimate SE p n Estimate SE p
Shannon All AMs 5996 − 0.003 0.002 0.137 2957 − 0.005 0.002 0.045 3039 − 0.001 0.003 0.648
Amoxicillin 2622 0.002 0.004 0.685 1280 − 0.007 0.005 0.186 1342 0.011 0.006 0.079
Azithromycin 1495 − 0.015 0.005 0.002 783 − 0.003 0.006 0.623 712 − 0.032 0.008 < 0.001
Amoxicillin-clavulanate 1123 0.003 0.005 0.471 531 − 0.005 0.007 0.509 592 0.011 0.007 0.093
Phenoxymethylpenicillin 408 0.004 0.011 0.673 199 − 0.002 0.014 0.895 209 0.014 0.015 0.378
Inverse Simpson All AMs 5996 − 0.013 0.020 0.500 2957 − 0.038 0.026 0.147 3039 0.006 0.029 0.848
Amoxicillin 2622 0.007 0.045 0.876 1280 − 0.053 0.060 0.379 1342 0.066 0.068 0.328
Azithromycin 1495 − 0.077 0.052 0.143 783 − 0.024 0.063 0.705 712 − 0.159 0.087 0.067
Amoxicillin-clavulanate 1123 0.016 0.054 0.770 531 − 0.066 0.078 0.393 592 0.080 0.075 0.282
Phenoxymethylpenicillin 408 0.077 0.118 0.513 199 0.042 0.158 0.791 209 0.135 0.174 0.439
  1. Significant results in bold
  2. Adjusted for age, gender (not in gender-specific analysis) and language. SE Std. error, n number of AM prescriptions
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