Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordinations of bacterial (A) and fungal (B) community composition across all bulk and rhizosphere soil samples. OF+W19 = Bio-organic fertilizer containing B. amyloliquefaciens W19, SOF+W19 = sterilized bio-organic fertilizer inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens W19, OF = Organic fertilizer, SOF = Sterilized organic fertilizer. (C) Structural equation model of incorporating bacterial and fungal community structure, Fusarium pathogen density and banana Fusarium wilt disease incidence. The path analysis numbers adjacent to arrows indicate the relationship’s effect size and the associated bootstrap P-value. Blue and red arrows indicate positive and negative relationships, respectively. Paths with non-significant coefficients are presented as gray lines.