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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and behavioral data of study participants with microbiome data

From: The neovaginal microbiome of transgender women post-gender reassignment surgery

VariableVariable categoryTransgender women—neovaginal samples (n = 5)aTransgender women—rectal samples (n = 7)aCisgender women—vaginal samples (n = 30)b
Age (median, range) 48 (28–57)48 (35–57)31 (19–55)
Time since first neovaginoplasty (median, range)Years9.5 (3.7–35.7)10.9 (5.1–35.7)NA
Time since most recent neovaginoplasty (median, range)Years9.5 (3.5–34)9.5 (1.5–34)NA
Surgery method—all techniques (n, %)Penile inversion, scrotal cutaneous graft4 (80)4 (57)NA
Penile inversion, scrotal cutaneous graft with sigmoid colon extension1 (20)3 (43)
Total number of surgeries (median, range)c 1 (1–4)2 (1–6)NA
Vaginal complaints (n, %)d 2 (40)3 (43)13 (43)
Number who practice vaginal washing (n, %) 1 (20)1 (20)1 (3.3)
Hormone therapy (n, %)eEstrogen therapy/hormonal contraception3 (60)5 (71)11 (37)
Not currently on therapy/hormonal contraception1 (20)1 (14)16 (53)
Unknown1 (20)1 (14)3 (10)
STI (n, %) fHepatitis B4 (80)5 (71)Data not collected
Hepatitis C0 (0)0 (0)Data not collected
Active syphilis0 (0)1 (14)Data not collected
Anal chlamydia0 (0)2 (29)Data not collected
Vaginal chlamydia0 (0)1 (14)1 (3.3)
Anal gonorrhea1 (20)0 (0)Data not collected
Vaginal gonorrhea0 (0)0 (0)0
HIV0 (0)0 (0)2 (6.7)
Sexually active in 30 days prior to sample collection (n, %)gReported receptive anal sex1 (20)3 (43)NA
Reported receptive neovaginal sex2 (40)4 (57)NA
Reported cis vaginal sexNANA19 (63)
Condom use in the last 30 days (n, %) h 0 (0)0 (0)7 (23)
Number of sexual partners in the last 30 days (median, range) 1 (0–1)1 (0–1)Data not collected
Applied a chemical substance (n, %)i 2 (40)2 (29)Data not collected
Used sex toy in vagina (n, %) 2 (40)1 (14)Data not collected
  1. aNine transgender women (TW) had both neovaginal and rectal samples collected for metaproteomics, but only 5 neovaginal samples and 7 rectal samples had bacterial proteins detected
  2. bA total of 32 samples from 30 cisgender women (CW) were collected. Two samples were longitudinal from the same Swedish participants
  3. cReasons for re-operation included stenosis, procedural complications, dissatisfaction with external appearance, anorgasmia, and sexual mismatch
  4. dVaginal complaints included spontaneous pain, pain during intercourse, spontaneous bleeding, fetid odor and/or vaginal depth amongst TW, and vaginal discomfort, discharge, itching, pain, bleeding, and odor amongst CW
  5. eCW reported using either oral contraceptive pills, injectable contraception, vaginal ring contraception, or a hormonal intrauterine device
  6. fAll STIs were tested for at the time of sample collection. Hepatitis B seropositivity represented past exposure
  7. gIncludes instances of neovaginal and/or anal intercourse for TW and penetrative vaginal intercourse for CW
  8. hIndicates condom use in any sexual activities (anal and neovaginal intercourse included) in the 30 days prior to sample collection
  9. iChemical substances included lubricants, soap, and/or douche