Association of river resistome with human-related ARGs. a Network of shared ARGs among river, human gut, and pathogen resistomes. Two types of nodes are present in the network: sample nodes and ARG sequence nodes. Each sample node represents a set of metagenome data from the same site (river metagenomes) or the same country (gut metagenomes) or a set of pathogen genomes in the same genus. Each ARG sequence node represents a unique ARG with 99% nucleotide identity. ARG nodes that contain sequences from only a single sample node were removed from the network. Edges were created between ARG sequence nodes and sample nodes, with different colors indicating the incidence of plasmid-like contigs. Sample nodes of pathogen genomes are shown in different colors according to bacterial taxa. b Relative abundances of gut-related ARGs in the river metagenomes. c Relative abundances of gut-related SCGs in the river metagenomes. d Relative abundances of pathogen-related ARGs in the river metagenomes. e Relative abundances of pathogen-related SCGs in the river metagenomes. f Comparison of relative abundances of human-related SCGs, human-related ARGs, and river-specific ARGs between upstream and downstream. g Frequency of human-related and river-specific ARGs in the context of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the genome database. ARGs were considered to be in an MGE context, when detected in plasmid-like contigs or within 50 kb from integrases (IntI) or transposases (Tnp). h The number of taxa in the genome database in which human-related and river-specific ARGs were detected.