Transplantation of the gut microbiota from NLRP3 KO mice alleviated astrocyte dysfunction in CUS mice. a NLRP3 inflammasome deficiency rescued the decreased GFAP levels induced by CUS. N = 6 mice/group. ***p < 0.001 vs. the WT control group. #p < 0.05 vs. the CUS-treated WT group using one-way ANOVA followed by the Holm-Sidak test. b Colonization with the NLRP3 KO microbiota attenuated the decreased GFAP expression induced by CUS. N = 11 mice/group. c Effect of NLRP3 KO microbiota colonization on astrocyte dysfunction induced by CUS. Representative images of astrocyte immunostaining for GFAP in mouse hippocampi, followed by 3D reconstruction and Sholl analysis. Scale bars, 50 μm. d Quantification of GFAP-positive cells per square millimeter in mouse hippocampi. N = 4 mice/group. e–g Average branch number (e), total branch length (f), and total branch volume (g). n = 4 mice/group, 40 cells/group. *p < 0.05 and ***p < 0.001 vs. the FMT-WT control group. #p < 0.05 and ###p < 0.001 vs. the CUS-treated FMT-WT group using one-way ANOVA followed by the Holm-Sidak test.