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Table 3 Microbial functional genes related to the metabolism of cholesterol and BA assigned (ratio 1/10,000 reads) through MetaCyc metabolic pathway database in three metagenomes from human bile and five fecal metagenomes from healthy subjects from a previous study [20]

From: The human gallbladder microbiome is related to the physiological state and the biliary metabolic profile

  Bile samples Fecal samples Average bile Average gut
Pathway H-04 H-05 H-06 2HS 26HS 30HS 31HS 32HS
Cholesterol biosynthesis I 0.13 0.02 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.15 ± 0.11 0.02 ± 0.03
Cholesterol biosynthesis II (via 24,25-dihydrolanosterol) 0.13 0.02 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.15 ± 0.11 0.02 ± 0.03
Cholesterol biosynthesis III (via desmosterol) 0.13 0.02 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.15 ± 0.11 0.02 ± 0.03
Superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis 0.37 3.29 15.31 0.12 0.21 0.25 1.06 0.25 6.32 ± 6.47 0.38 ± 0.34
Superpathway of cholesterol degradation I (cholesterol oxidase) 1.06 0.17 0.21 0.41 0.46 0.39 0.48 0.71 0.48 ± 0.41 0.49 ± 0.11
Superpathway of cholesterol degradation II (cholesterol dehydrogenase) 1.52 0.34 0.36 0.54 0.5 0.47 0.62 0.81 0.74 ± 0.55 0.59 ± 0.12
Cholesterol degradation to androstenedione I (cholesterol oxidase) 0.35 0.02 0.07 0.00 0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.15 ± 0.15 0.01 ± 0.01
Cholesterol degradation to androstenedione II (cholesterol dehydrogenase) 0.74 0.05 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.33 ± 0.29 0.02 ± 0.02
Bile acid biosynthesis, neutral pathway 0.61 0.07 0.29 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.11 0.05 0.32 ± 0.22 0.06 ± 0.03
Glycocholate metabolism (bacteria) 1.58 2.71 0.72 10.58 15.03 12.4 15.53 12.35 1.67 ± 0.81 13.18 ± 1.84
Cholate degradation (bacteria, anaerobic) 0.35 0.46 0.14 0.97 0.77 0.41 0.62 0.38 0.32 ± 0.13 0.63 ± 0.22