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Table 1 Summary of marker gene concentrations via qPCR

From: Comparison of the microbiomes of two drinking water distribution systems—with and without residual chloramine disinfection

Target Statistic Biofilms (copies cm −2) P value , Drinking water (copies L −1) P value Source
   Chloraminated No residual   Chloraminated No residual   
Bacterial 16S rRNA genes Median <MQL 4.5×107   7.9×106 2.2×107   
  Min. <6.5×105 1.8×105 1×10−6 <1.3×106 2.8×106 5×10−3 [16]
  Max. 5.0×107 4.0×108   1.0×108 3.5×108   
N. oligotropha-like amoA genes Median 4.7×104 1.1×103   2.6×104 7.9×102   
  Min. 2.0×103 <3.2×102 2×10−7 2.1×103 <2.2×102 5×10−10 This study
  Max. 1.0×107 2.6×104   4.4×106 7.4×103   
Archaeal amoA genes Median <MQL 2.8×104   <MQL 9.2×105   
  Min. <1.1×102 <1.5×103 4×10−6 <2.3×102 2.5×104 3×10−11 This study
  Max. <7.1×102 2.6×105   <5.6×102 1.4×107   
  1. <MQL, less than method quantification limit; min., minimum; max., maximum
  2. Group-wise comparisons (i.e., chloraminated versus no residual) using generalized Wilcoxon tests
  3. Observations from seasonal shut-off water mains are excluded