The predicted bile acid metabolic profiles of microbe-microbe pairs and individual gut microbiomes. a Complementary bile acid biosynthesis capabilities of the 232 gut microbial models with bile acid pathways joined in all possible combinations. The numbers of secondary bile acids (out of 13), which can be produced by each pair, are shown. b, c Total secretion potential in the healthy adults (Healthy_HMP), IBD patients (IBD_pediatric), and healthy pediatric controls (Healthy_pediatric) (flux values are given in mmol × person-1 × day-1): b deconjugated cholate, c 12-dehydro-CA. Significant difference (p value < 0.001) is indicated by stars. d Principal Coordinates Analysis of the strain-level contributions to two deconjugated primary and 13 secondary bile acids for the healthy adults, IBD patients, and healthy pediatric controls. Details on the strain to metabolite contributions are shown in Additional file 1: Table S8, and in Additional file 2: Figure S7.