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Table 4 Comparison of immunological/inflammatory biomarkers between residence location groups at baseline

From: Prebiotic supplementation in frail older people affects specific gut microbiota taxa but not global diversity

Biomarkers p a p b Mean (SD)
CM vs. YH CM vs. LS YH vs. LS YH CM LS
CRP (mg/L) < 0.001 0.443 < 0.001 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 2 (3.8) 1.5 (1.2) 24.3 (29.2)
CXCL11 (pg/ml) < 0.001 0.244 < 0.001 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 345.8 (594.6) 670.3 (1310.9) 1278.1 (1655.1)
CCL11 (pg/ml) < 0.001 0.126 < 0.001 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 12.1 (27.3) 17.5 (37.3) 310.3 (133.3)
IL-17A (pg/ml) < 0.001 < 0.001 (↓) 0.002 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 0.4 (0.0) 0.9 (0.5) 3.4 (2.9)
IFN-γ (pg/ml) 0.004 0.094 0.026 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 5 (6.4) 6.4 (6.5) 10.5 (8.4)
IL-10 (pg/ml) < 0.001 0.365 < 0.001 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.8 (1.9)
IL-6 (pg/ml) < 0.001 0.006 (↓) < 0.001 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 0.2 (0.1) 0.6 (0.4) 3.1 (3)
IL-8 (pg/ml) 0.008 0.113 0.033 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 8.9 (5.1) 12.9 (14.2) 29.1 (67.4)
TNF-α (pg/ml) < 0.001 0.012 < 0.001 (↑) < 0.001 (↑) 1 (0.6) 1.7 (0.8) 5.1 (2.8)
CD4 (%) 0.342 0.113 0.097 0.448 38.6 (7.8) 33.5 (13) 37.8 (16.3)
CD8 (%) 0.001 < 0.001 (↑) 0.167 0.006 (↓) 20.9 (6.6) 13.6 (9.5) 16.5 (10.6)
LPS (EU/ml) 0.065 0.010 (↓) 0.129 0.173 6.1 (4.7) 11 (8.3) 8.2 (7.0)
  1. ↑ ↓ Indicates direction of difference in value in the latter-named group, in the pairwise comparison
  2. CM community (seniors), YH young-healthy, LS long-stay (residential care seniors)
  3. aKruskal-Wallis test across the three residence location groups
  4. bDunn’s post-hoc test for pairwise comparison