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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of the subjects, grouped by residence location, at baseline

From: Prebiotic supplementation in frail older people affects specific gut microbiota taxa but not global diversity

Characteristics Young-healthy Community Long-stay p b
Intervention Placebo p a Intervention Placebo p a Intervention Placebo p a
n 21 8   20 8   17 5   
Sex (#male:female) 6:15 7:1 0.01 7:13 3:5 1.00 7:10 2:3 1.00 0.808
Age (years) 41.9 (14.5) 33.1 (13.2) 0.09 69.5 (4.9) 74.9 (7.5) 0.07 83.4 (7.6) 85 (7.6) 0.84 < 0.001
BMI (kg/cm2) 24.7 (5.0) 25.7 (3.5) 0.31 26.2 (4.3) 25.5 (1.4) 0.76 27.3 (6.2) 28.8 (7.7) 0.82 0.157
Weight (kg) 70.6 (13.5) 80.4 (10.6) 0.06 74.7 (14.9) 66.2 (8.8) 0.13 80 (28.1) 90.7 (28.5) 0.46 0.665
Charlson comorbidity ND ND ND 0 (0) 0.1 (0.4) 0.13 2 (1.3) 3 (3.0) 0.75 < 0.001
Barthel score ND ND ND 20 (0) 19.9 (0.4) 0.13 6.6 (5.5) 5 (3.5) 0.72 < 0.001
ALP (IU/L) 73.8 (26.0) 90.5 (24.6) 0.10 80.8 (16.6) 74.4 (17.7) 0.41 106.2 (28.9) 101.5 (39.3) 0.79 0.002
ALT (IU/L) 25.1 (12.6) 26.5 (5.9) 0.29 23.8 (10.9) 24 (7.7) 0.58 13.9 (7.2) 12.5 (4.5) 0.86 < 0.001
AST (IU/L) 25.2 (4.5) 28.8 (6.8) 0.19 27.3 (7.1) 31.2 (13.6) 0.94 19 (4.9) 16 (3.2) 0.33 < 0.001
Bilirubin (μmol/L) 14.1 (10.6) 10.9 (5.0) 0.45 12.1 (5.8) 11.1 (4.5) 0.75 6.5 (2.0) 7 (2.4) 0.65 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.5 (0.7) 5.7 (1.1) 0.90 5.5 (1.2) 5.1 (1.2) 0.49 4.5 (0.9) 4.8 (1.9) 0.87 0.004
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.5 (0.3) 1.4 (0.3) 0.15 1.6 (0.3) 1.8 (1.2) 0.30 1.2 (0.3) 1.1 (0.2) 0.64 0.001
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.4 (0.6) 3.6 (0.9) 0.59 3.5 (1.2) 2.9 (0.8) 0.29 2.6 (0.8) 2 (0.8) 0.40 0.004
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.3 (0.5) 1.5 (0.6) 0.59 1.2 (0.4) 1.3 (0.3) 0.33 1.7 (0.8) 2.8 (1.9) 0.23 0.030
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 4.5 (0.6) 4.5 (0.5) 0.48 5.2 (0.7) 5 (0.6) 0.49 6.1 (1.6) 7.7 (2.8) 0.22 < 0.001
Creatinine (μmol/L) 71.5 (12.2) 80.9 (15.8) 0.07 70.1 (14.4) 76.1 (23.3) 0.52 91 (48.0) 104.5 (38.9) 0.59 0.068
Ferritin (μg/L) 73.8 (48.5) 98.1 (64.5) 0.39 102.6 (63.2) 107.6 (53.7) 0.61 80.9 (70.7) 40.3 (10.1) 0.79 0.094
TSH (mIU/L) 1.9 (0.8) 1.6 (0.3) 0.39 2.5 (1.3) 2.4 (1.3) 0.92 1.7 (0.6) 1.1 (1.0) 0.30 0.037
Urea (mmol/L) 5.4 (1.1) 5.5 (1.2) 0.96 5.7 (1.4) 5.5 (1.0) 0.58 8.7 (3.6) 11.6 (4.1) 0.11 < 0.001
Vitamin B12 (pg/mL) 265.1 (159.3) 318.8 (120.6) 0.12 332.6 (153.3) 303.4 (93.4) 0.79 234.2 (119.5) 195.7 (46.6) 0.63 0.009
White blood cell count 6 (1.6) 6.1 (1.4) 0.79 5.5 (1.1) 6.2 (1.7) 0.47 7.3 (2.6) 6.9 (0.7) 0.90 0.042
HFD index 0.5 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.031 0.4 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.409 0.3 (0.1) 0.4 (0.1) 0.179 < 0.001
  1. Data presented as mean (SD)
  2. ALP alkaline phosphatase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate transaminase, TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone, HFD healthy food diversity, ND not done
  3. aMann-Whitney U test for two treatment groups except Fisher’s test for sex ratio
  4. bKruskal-Wallis test for three residence location groups