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Table 1 Distribution of environmental chemicals in breast milk at 1 month post-partum (31.4 [± 19.9] days)

From: Environmental toxicants in breast milk of Norwegian mothers and gut bacteria composition and metabolites in their infants at 1 month

Class Exposure N % missinga % < LOD Mean (± SD) Min p25 p50 p75 Max
Dioxin-like PCBs PCB-105 266 0.3 0 1.64 (1.09) 0.41 0.99 1.4 1.93 12.72
PCB-114 266 0.3 1.4 0.39 (0.22) LOD 0.26 0.35 0.48 2.09
PCB-118 266 0.3 0 7.68 (5.01) 1.99 4.96 6.82 8.95 62.23
PCB-156 266 0.3 0 3.83 (2.34) 0.58 2.43 3.34 4.53 22.73
PCB-157 266 0.3 0 0.76 (0.55) 0.09 0.44 0.61 0.9 4.87
PCB-167 264 1 0 0.97 (0.65) 0.19 0.64 0.84 1.13 8.05
PCB-189 266 0.3 0.3 0.30 (0.21) LOD 0.19 0.25 0.35 2.48
Non-dioxin-like PCBs PCB-74 266 0.3 0 4.12 (2.35) 0.84 2.65 3.74 4.8 18.68
PCB-99 266 0.3 0 4.98 (2.66) 0.84 3.35 4.48 6.14 24.74
PCB-138 266 0.3 0 22.63 (12.85) 4.39 15.54 20.27 26.89 145.06
PCB-153 266 0.3 0 37.73 (22.50) 7.34 25.81 34.7 44.12 296.03
PCB-170 266 0.3 0 7.79 (4.44) 1.22 5.25 6.89 9.27 46.49
PCB-180 266 0.3 0 19.65 (12.05) 4.2 13.17 17.73 23.38 142.46
PCB-194 266 0.3 0.3 1.56 (1.10) LOD 0.94 1.37 1.85 11.76
PCB-209 225 14.2 3.7 0.12 (0.10) LOD 0.07 0.1 0.13 0.78
Organochlorine pesticides HCB 266 0.3 0 11.14 (4.72) 1.72 8.72 10.45 12.93 48.72
β-HCH 266 0.3 0 4.70 (2.98) 0.7 2.9 4.32 5.63 31.34
p,p′-DDE 266 0.3 0 66.03 (54.00) 5.37 38.08 53.48 77.16 617.26
p,p′-DDT 219 16.2 0.4 2.65 (2.80) 0.04 1.54 2.11 2.93 35.16
Oxychlordane 258 3 0 3.77 (2.69) 0.53 2.38 3.27 4.48 30.27
PDBEs PBDE-28 257 3.4 1.4 0.25 (0.47) 0.01 0.11 0.16 0.26 5.59
PBDE-47 257 3.4 0 1.99 (4.96) 0.18 0.74 1.1 1.74 59.19
PBDE-99 257 3.4 0 0.48 (1.18) 0.04 0.18 0.26 0.42 14.99
PBDE-100 257 3.4 0.4 0.41 (0.74) 0.01 0.19 0.26 0.4 7.5
PBDE-153 256 3.7 0 0.61 (0.48) 0.05 0.35 0.5 0.7 4.03
PBDE-154 257 3.4 11.2 0.04 (0.09) 0 0.02 0.03 0.04 1.18
PFAS PFOA 230 12.5 2.8 57.60 (33.98) 2.19 34.42 50.77 71.18 182.55
PFOS 230 12.5 0 126.70 (63.07) 22.99 80.39 116.73 158.05 370.63
  1. Breastmilk concentrations in ng/g lipid except for PFOS and PFOA, which are ng/L
  2. LOD limit of detection, PCB polychlorinated biphenyl, HCB hexachlorobenzene, β-HCH beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, p,p′-DDE dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, p,p′-DDT dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ether, PFOA perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOS perfluorooctanesulfonic acid
  3. a“Missing” because the breast milk samples had not undergone chemical analysis at the time of this study. Only compounds that had N > 200 and > 80% of samples above the LOD were included