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Fig. 2 | Microbiome

Fig. 2

From: Short-term consumption of a high-fat diet increases host susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes infection

Fig. 2

Diet influences the host physiological landscape prior to infection (D0 to D13). a Number of goblet cells (D13) present on one villus was quantified and divided by the villus length (groups were blinded). Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s multiple comparison test in relation to D0. Representative histological images demonstrating goblet cell density (left representative of LF group and right representative of HF group on day D13) (bar 200 μm). Ileal paraffin sections of 5 μm were stained with alcian blue and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and counterstained with Schiff reagent and Nuclear Fast Red solution. Arrows indicate examples of goblet cells. b Murine gene expression profile in response to increased dietary fat content by qRT-PCR. Represented as log2 of the fold change between the condition and the control (D0). Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. c Comparison of the changes in bacterial communities during controlled feeding. Unweighted Unifrac PCoA faecal microbiota distances between groups of mice fed different diets (blue representing LF; red representing HF) prior to infection (time points D0, D6, D13). p values were measured using an Adonis test (p value = 1e−5, R2 (proportion of variance explained) is 0.48). d Changes in bacterial abundance during dietary shifts (D0 to D13) for the most abundant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. e Changes in bacterial abundance between LF and HF diets at the family level for the most abundant phyla. A volcano plot showing the fold change between HF and LF diets at D13. Each point represents an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The x-axis represents the log2 of the fold change whilst the y-axis is the negative log10 of DESeq2 p values adjusted for multiple testing using the false discovery rate method. Points to the right of the plot with positive log2FoldChange values represent bacterial taxa with increased abundance in the mice on the HF diet relative to the mice on the LF diet and those with negative log2FoldChange values represent bacterial taxa with increased abundance in the LF diet relative to the HF diet. The horizontal black line represents the cutoff for statistical significance, an adjusted p value of 0.05. f A correlation between the host regulatory response and the microbiota at the genus level on D13. Spearman correlation, between the diet-dependent relative abundance of bacterial genera (arrows represent abundance in the mice on the HF diet relative to the mice on the LF diet) and the fold change for genes in both ileum and liver. Results shown separately for genes associated with host immunity, tight junction proteins and host-pathogen interaction. Represented are only significant hits, p < 0.05. Error bars represent SEM

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