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Fig. 3 | Microbiome

Fig. 3

From: Estrogen-mediated gut microbiome alterations influence sexual dimorphism in metabolic syndrome in mice

Fig. 3

Male mice fecal microbiota-transplant transfers MS to female recipients. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with fecal content from donor male (M; n = 5) mice fed WD was performed on female recipient mice (F → M; n = 5) pretreated with an antibiotic cocktail. Normal female (F; n = 5) mice were maintained as a control group. ae Markers of obesity (baseline (BL) and after FMT body weight and body weight gain in the end (a), fat and lean body mass (% body weight) (b), gross appearance (dorsal and ventral aspects have been shown to differentiate the female from male sex) of male, female, and F → M mice (c), glucose tolerance test results (d), and serum triglyceride levels ®. fh Markers of metabolic endotoxemia such as serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration (f) and LPS-binding proteins (LBP) concentrations (g) and intestinal permeability to FITC-dextran macro molecules (h). i Serum TNF-α. j β-diversity analysis using principal coordinate analysis (PCOA) with Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index followed by PERMANOVA significance test. k Hierarchical clustering with a heat map shows the representative OTU (those with greatest difference between groups) group means from each family selected for P < 0.05, obtained with differential abundance analysis. l Phylum-level analysis using the relative abundance (RA). m Cladogram generated from LEfSe analysis showing the relationship between biomarker taxa (the levels represent, from the inner to outer rings, phylum, class, order, family, and genus). ®®Data was shown as mean ± SEM. Data with different superscript letters are significantly different (P < 0.05). Ordinary or repeated measures one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test

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