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Table 2 Body weights and gut morphometry of piglets fed formulas containing lactose (LAC), corn syrup solids (CSS), or mixture (MIX)

From: Metabolomic signatures distinguish the impact of formula carbohydrates on disease outcome in a preterm piglet model of NEC

  LAC MIX CSS
Number pigs/group
 Healthy 18 6 25
 NEC 3 6 20
Time of death, hr post-feeding
 Healthy 106 ± 7 121 ± 1 104 ± 6
 NEC 83 ± 23 75 ± 12† 62 ± 9†
Birth weight (g)
 Healthy 934 ± 45 1011 ± 62 1066 ± 45
 NEC 872 ± 28 1010 ± 108 926 ± 50†
Final weight (g)
 Healthy 1382 ± 81 1511 ± 86 1530 ± 79
 NEC 1203 ± 116 1310 ± 122 1203 ± 97
Weight gain (g•kg− 1•day− 1)
 Healthy 104 ± 6 99 ± 6 94 ± 6
 NEC 106 ± 17 86 ± 30 61 ± 20
Proximal jejunum
 Villus height (μm)
  Healthy 467 ± 34 427 ± 39 569 ± 33
  NEC 314 ± 25† 305 ± 32† 330 ± 38†
 Crypt depth (μm)
  Healthy 94 ± 3 107 ± 8 102 ± 5
  NEC 75 ± 8 79 ± 9† 83 ± 4†
Terminal ileum
 Villus height (μm)
  Healthy 537 ± 21 518 ± 12 634 ± 45
  NEC 179 ± 52† 277 ± 55† 291 ± 46†
 Crypt depth (μm)
  Healthy 114 ± 6 131 ± 12 121 ± 6
  NEC 97 ± 3† 75 ± 9† 82 ± 6†
Colon
 Crypt depth (μm)
  Healthy 232 ± 14 183 ± 16 216 ± 9
  NEC 314 ± 2a 148 ± 5b 213 ± 14c
  1. Values are mean ± standard error of the mean. Superscripts a, b, and c designate the results of Tukey’s post hoc test comparing across groups; groups sharing letters are not significantly different (no superscripts if no differences were detected for that row). The cross, †, identifies differences between Healthy and NEC within a group, by student’s t test. An alpha level of 0.05 was used for all tests