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Table 1 Subject characteristics by delivery mode (n = 145)

From: Maternal diet during pregnancy is related with the infant stool microbiome in a delivery mode-dependent manner

  n (%) or mean [range] p value1
All (n = 145) Vaginal (n = 97) Cesarean (n = 48)  
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age 31.9 [22–44] 31.8 [22–44] 32.2 [23–42] 0.65
 Education level     0.14
  Less than 11th grade 1 (0.7) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0)  
  High school graduate or equivalent 15 (10.3) 7 (7.2) 8 (16.7)
  Junior college graduate or some college 25 (17.2) 16 (16.5) 9 (18.8)
  College graduate 54 (37.2) 34 (35.1) 20 (41.7)
  Any post-graduate schooling 50 (34.5) 39 (40.2) 11 (22.9)
 Relationship status     0.29
  Married 133 (91.7) 91 (93.8) 42 (87.5)  
  Separated or divorced 3 (2.1) 1 (1.0) 2 (4.2)
  Single and never married 9 (6.2) 5 (5.2) 4 (8.3)
 Smoking     0.43
  No 138 (95.2) 91 (93.8) 47 (97.9)  
  Yes 7 (4.8) 6 (6.2) 1 (2.1)
 Parity 0.8 [0–4] 0.9 [0–4] 0.7 [0–2] 0.07
 Maternal BMI 25.6 [17.4–47.8] 26.0 [17.4–47.8] 24.7 [18.4–42.1] 0.22
 Gestational diabetes2     0.58
  No 121 (83.4) 84 (86.6) 37 (77.1)  
  Yes 16 (11.0) 10 (10.3) 6 (12.5)
 Dietary factors (servings/day)3
  aMED score 3.67 [0–7] 3.8 [0–7] 3.5 [0–7] 0.32
  Dairy 3.6 [0.0–8.5] 3.7 [0.0–8.5] 3.5 [0.8–6.8] 0.40
  Fruit 2.3 [0.0–5.9] 2.3 [0.2–5.9] 2.2 [0.0–5.6] 0.52
  Vegetables 3.3 [0.0–9.6] 3.3 [0.5–9.6] 3.2 [0.0–7.6] 0.78
  Whole grains 1.0 [0.0–4.1] 1.2 [0.1–4.1] 0.9 [0.0–3.1] 0.03
  Fish and seafood 0.2 [0.0–1.0] 0.2 [0.0–1.0] 0.2 [0.0–0.6] 0.56
  Nuts, legumes, and soy 0.9 [0.0–4.5] 0.9 [0.0–3.1] 0.9 [0.0–4.5] 1.00
  Red and processed meat 0.8 [0.0–2.3] 0.7 [0.0–2.0] 0.8 [0.0–2.3] 0.21
  Polyunsaturated fat (g/day) 13.9 [8.67–23.7] 13.6 [8.7–21.0] 14.5 [9.2–23.7] 0.12
  EPA (g/day) 0.1 [0.0–0.5] 0.1 [0.0–0.5] 0.1 [0.0–0.5] 0.28
  DHA (g/day) 0.1 [0.0–0.6] 0.1 [0.0–0.6] 0.1 [0.0–0.5] 0.79
  Monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio 1.1 [0.7–2.3] 1.1 [0.7–2.1] 1.2 [0.7–2.3] 0.35
Infant characteristics
 Sex     0.38
  Female 62 (42.8) 44 (45.4) 18 (37.5)  
  Male 83 (57.2) 53 (54.6) 30 (62.5)
 Birth weight (g)4 3427.4 [1960–4710] 3466.3 [2030–4565] 3348.9 [1960–4710] 0.18
 Gestational age (weeks) 39.3 [30.4–43.4] 39.5 [30.4–42.1] 39.1 [33.4–43.4] 0.21
 Feeding method     0.04
  Exclusively breastfed 102 (70.3) 74 (76.3) 28 (58.3)  
  Combination 37 (25.5) 21 (21.7) 16 (33.3)
  Exclusively formula fed 6 (4.1) 2 (2.1) 4 (8.3)
 Antibiotics by 4 months old5     0.66
  No 135 (93.1) 91 (93.8) 44 (91.7)  
  Yes 5 (3.5) 3 (3.1) 2 (4.2)
  1. 1p value determined by two-sided Welch’s t test or Fisher’s exact test
  2. 2Missing data on eight subjects
  3. 3All dietary factors are standardized to a 2000 cal/day diet, excluding aMED score and monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio
  4. 4Missing data on three subjects
  5. 5Missing data on five subjects