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Table 2 Examples of modes of symbiont transmission

From: The hologenome concept of evolution after 10 years

Mode of transmission Examples
Vegetative reproduction (vertical) Plants, worms [99], corals [202], echinoderms [203]
Via oocytes (vertical) Drosophila/Wolbachia [98], aphid/Buchnera [97], sponge [204], herbs/fungi [205]
Coprophagy (vertical and horizontal) Many animals: termites [101], rabbits [206], koala [100], insects [102]
Mother’s milk (vertical) Mammals [108,109,110]
Physical contact starting at birth (Vertical and horizontal) Most animals: fish [207], amphibians [208], mammals [209]
Horizontal Grasses/endophytes [120], squid/Vibrio fischeri [119]
  1. Adapted from Roughgarden et al. [182]. Vertical transmission is defined as the movement of microbiota from parent to offspring without mixing with microbes in the environment