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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study participants

From: Drinking alcohol is associated with variation in the human oral microbiome in a large study of American adults

  Non-drinkers (n = 270) Moderate drinkers* (n = 614) Heavy drinkers* (n = 160) p value
  N % N % N %  
Age   68.3 ± 7.0   67.6 ± 7.4   66.8 ± 6.8 0.092
Gender
 Male 150 55.6 412 67.1 103 64.4  
 Female 120 44.4 202 32.9 57 35.6 0.0044
Race
 White 255 94.4 581 94.6 157 98.1  
 Non-White 15 5.6 33 5.4 3 1.9 0.16
BMI, kg/m2
 < 25 87 32.2 226 36.8 70 43.7  
 25–< 30 114 42.2 273 44.5 64 40.0  
 ≥ 30 69 25.6 115 18.7 26 16.3 0.039
Education
 High school or less 96 33.6 188 30.6 39 24.4 0.014
 Some college 93 34.4 178 29.0 54 33.8  
 College graduate or higher 81 30.0 248 40.4 67 41.9  
Smoking status
 Never 157 58.1 266 43.3 38 23.8  
 Former 92 34.1 301 49.0 98 61.3  
 Current 21 7.8 47 7.7 24 15.0 < 0.0001
  1. .According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, moderate drinking was defined as > 0 to 1 drink per day for women and > 0 to 2 drinks per day for men; more than 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men was defined as heavy drinking
  2. p values were from chi-square test or ANOVA
  3. Mean and standard deviation were calculated