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Table 1 Examples of microbial interference between microbiota and vector-borne pathogens

From: The mosquito holobiont: fresh insight into mosquito-microbiota interactions

Pathogen Mosquito Microorganism Interference References
Arboviruses Dengue virus Aedes aegypti Serratia odorifera Enhances susceptibility to the virus [115]
Chromobacterium Increases infection resistance
Antiviral activity
Immune elicitor
Enterobacteriaceae, Esp_ivi isolate, alternatively Salmonella, Escherichia or Shigella Decreases antibacterial activity
Reduces virus dissemination titer
Wolbachia Reduces susceptibility to the virus [153]
West Nile virus Culex pipiens
Colorado strain
Culex Flavivirus (CxFV) Reduces virus dissemination [62]
Culex quinquefasciatus Honduras strain Culex Flavivirus (CxFV) Enhances virus dissemination [132]
  Culex quinquefasciatus Nhumirim virus (NHUV) Reduces virus infection [135]
Chikungunya virus Aedes aegypti Serratia odorifera Enhances susceptibility to the virus [115]
Eilat virus Reduces virus replication and dissemination [64]
La Crosse virus Aedes albopictus Enterobacter ludwigii Antiviral activity [116]
Pseudomonas rhodesiae Antiviral activity [116]
Vagococcus salmoninarium Antiviral activity [116]
Parasites Plasmodium yoelii Anopheles dirus Bacterial microbiota Protects against infection by regulating tep1 expression [109]
Plasmodium falciparum Anopheles gambiae Chromobacterium Increases infection resistance by forming a protective biofilm against parasite [99]
Enterobacter Inhibits parasite development by stimulating oxydative stress [100, 101]
Escherichia coli Reduces infection prevalence and intensity
Reduces parasite development
Pseudomonas stutzeri Reduces infection prevalence and intensity [98]
Serratia Protects against infection [103]
Serratia marcescens Reduces infection prevalence and intensity
Actives IMD/REL2 immune pathway
[98, 106]
Penicillium chrysogenum Enhances susceptibility to the parasite [130]
Plasmodium berghei Anopheles stephensi Asaia bogorensis Inhibits parasite development by secreting a siderophore receptor protein and a YVTN beta-propeller repeat protein [140]
Wickerhamomyces anomalus Anti-Plasmodium activity [129]