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Table 3 Overview of the main octocoral diseases, the putative pathogens and the octocoral genera/species affected. If multiple octocoral species from the same genus were affected, only the genus name is provided

From: Host-microbe interactions in octocoral holobionts - recent advances and perspectives

  Region Pathogen Octocoral affected
Microbial diseases
 Aspergillosis Caribbean Aspergillus sydowii
Aspergillus spp.
Gorgonia spp.
Pseudopterogorgia spp.
Plexaura spp.
Pseudoplexaura porosa
Plexaurella spp.
Pacific   Pacifigorgia spp.
 Red Band Disease Caribbean Polymicrobial mat – primarily cyanobacteria Ocillatoria sp. Gorgonia spp.
Plexaurella nutans
 Black Band Disease Caribbean Polymicrobial mat – cyanobacteria Phormidium corallyticum, sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrio, sulfide-oxidizing Beggiatoa Gorgonia spp.
Pseudopterogorgia spp.
Plexaurella spp.
Erythropodium asbestinum
 Octocoral Vibrio Syndrome (OVS) Mediterranean Vibrio coralliilyticus Eunicella spp.
Paramuricea clavata
 Fungal-Protozoan Syndrome
  *Possibly secondary infection following OVS
Mediterranean Fungus genera Trichoderma, Clodosporium, Penicillium
Unidentified protozoa
Eunicella spp.
Leptogorgia sarmentosa
Paramuricea clavata
Corallium rubrum
 Black Necrotic Syndrome Pacific Possibly Penicullium fungus Isis hippuris
 Multifocal Purple Spots (previously labyrinthulomycosis) Caribbean Aplanochytrium protozoan
Sphaerippe copepod
Gorgonia spp.
 Wasting Syndromes (WS) Caribbean Unknown pathogens  
  Gorgonian WS    Gorgonia spp.
Plexaura nutans
Erythropodium asbestinum
  Briareum WS    Briareum spp.
  Phyllogorgia WS    Phyllogorgia dilatata
  Erythropodium WS    Erythropodium asbestinum
 Bleaching Necrosis (BN) Caribbean Unknown pathogens  
  Briareum BN    Briareum spp.
  Erythropodium BN    Erythropodium caribaeorum
Other diseases
 Growth anomalies
  Hyperplasia, hypoplasia
  No documented mortality
Caribbean Endolithic algae – Entocladia endozoica Gorgonia spp.
Pseudopterogorgia spp.
Plexaura spp.
Pseudoplexaura spp.
Plexaurella anceps
 Bleaching
  Loss of zooxanthellae
Caribbean High seawater temperatures Gorgonia spp.
Pseudopterogorgia spp.
Plexaura spp.
Pseudoplexaura spp.
Plexaurella spp.
Briareum spp.
Muricea spp.
Eunicea spp.
Erythropodium asbestinum
Pterogorgia citrina
Muriceopsis flavida
Pacific   Isis hippuris
Lobophyton spp.
Sarcophyton spp.
Sinularia spp.