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Table 2 Overview of the bacteria most commonly found within octocoral holobionts. Taxonomy of the bacteria and which octocorals they associate with and their potential function are listed

From: Host-microbe interactions in octocoral holobionts - recent advances and perspectives

Phylum Class Order Family Genus Octocoral host Potential function Ref.
Actinobacteria Actinobacteria Propionibacteriales Propionibacteriaceae Propionibacterium Anthothela spp.
Corallium rubrum
Paramuricea spp.
Unknown
 –Zooxanthellate corals: coral–Symbiodinium symbiosis
[20, 82, 93, 94, 121]
Bacteroidetes Flavobacteriia Flavobacteriales Flavobacteriaceae Aquimarina Antillogorgia elisabethae
Eunicella spp.
Leptogorgia sarmentosa
Nutrient cycling
 Nitrogen cycling (denitrification)
 Carbon cycling (chitin degradation)
 Sulfur cycling (sulphate reduction)
Microbiome regulation
[20, 89, 101]
Chlamydiae Chlamydiae Chlamydiales Simkaniaceae Candidatus Fritschea Eunicella spp.
Leptogorgia sarmentosa
Unknown [20, 76]
Parcubacteria Corallium rubrum Unknown [20, 83]
Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rickettsiales Rickettsiales
incertae sedis
Candidatus Lariskella Eunicella spp.
Leptogorgia sarmentosa
Unknown [20, 76]
Gammaproteobacteria Cellvibrionales Spongiibacteraceae BD1-7 clade Corallium rubrum
Eunicella spp.
Leptogorgia sarmentosa
Unknown [20, 76]
Oceanospirillales Hahellaceae Endozoicomonas Antillogorgia elisabethae
Corallium rubrum
Erythropodium caribaeorum
Eunicella spp.
Eunicea fusca
Gorgonia ventalina
Leptogorgia sarmentosa Lobophytum pauciflorum
Paramuricea clavata
Plexaura sp.
Sarcophyton sp.
Sinularia flexibilis
Nutrient acquisition
 Nitrogen cycling
 Carbon cycling
 Sulfur cycling
 Amino acid synthesis
Microbiome regulation
[19, 20, 76, 77, 83, 89,90,91,92,93, 257]
ME2 Corallium rubrum Unknown [20, 83]
Vibrionales Vibrionaceae Vibrio Corallium rubrum
Eunicella sp.
Putative pathogen (V. shiloi)
Food digestion (V. gigantis-related)
[19, 20, 77, 105, 113,114,115]
Chromatiales Granulosicoccaceae Granulosicoccus Eunicella spp.
Leptogorgia sarmentosa
Unknown [20, 76]
Spirochaetae Spirochaetes Spirochaetales Spirochaetaceae Borrelia Corallium rubrum Unknown [20, 83]
Spirochaeta Anthothela spp.
Corallium rubrum
Lobophytum pauciflorum
Muricea spp.
Unknown [20, 83, 91, 103, 121]
Leptospiraceae Leptospira Corallium rubrum Unknown [20, 83]
Tenericutes Mollicutes Mycoplasmatales Mycoplasmataceae Mycoplasma Cryogorgia koolsae
Eunicella spp.
Leptogorgia sarmentosa
Muricea spp.
Pennatula phosphorea Plumarella superba
Pseudoplexaura porosa
Pteroeides spinosum
Unknown
 Commensal feeding on captured prey
[19, 20, 102,103,104,105,106]
Entomoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales incertae sedis Candidatus Hepatoplasma Eunicella spp.
Leptogorgia sarmentosa
Muricea spp.
Unknown
 –Potentially copepod prey symbionts
[20, 103]