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Table 1 Reported coral community shifts from reef-building scleractinian corals to soft corals and their causes

From: Host-microbe interactions in octocoral holobionts - recent advances and perspectives

Location Cause Shift in octocoral cover References
From (%) Up to (%)
Red Sea North and Center Crown of thorns starfish
Anthropogenic pollution
5–10 30–50 [245,246,247]
South Storms, bleaching
Anthropogenic pollution
4 30 [248, 249]
Caribbean Florida Keys Bleaching 6 14 [159]
US Virgin Islands Diseases    [250]
Indian Ocean Madagascar/Seychelles Bleaching 1.3 2 [251]
Seychelles Bleaching and anthropogenic pollution    [245]
Pacific Ocean Malaysia Bleaching
Dynamite fishing
Crown of thorns starfish
1 30 [252]
Indonesia Anthropogenic pollution
Dynamite fishing
7 13 [253, 254]
Australia Bleaching
Crown of thorns starfish
10 16 [255]
Fiji Anthropogenic pollution N/A N/A [256]