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Table 2 Response of sponge microbiome to environmental stressors

From: The sponge holobiont in a changing ocean: from microbes to ecosystems

Sponge species Microbial response Host Ref.
Method Diversity Function response  
Geodia barreti EMP pipeline No Ecophysiology [168]
Rhopaloeides odorabile TRFLP; metagenomics Yes Yes RT-qPCR [158]
R. odorabile pyrosequencing on DNA and cDNA Yes [182]
R. odorabile larva DGGE Yes [231]
R. odorabile DGGE and cloning Yes [232]
Ircinia fasciculata, I. oros TRFLP No [233]
I. fasciculata PAM fluorometry Yes [194]
Ianthella basta DGGE and cloning Yes [173]
Xestospongia muta TRFLP, cloning and RT-qPCR of amoA gene Yes Yes [234]
Halichondria bowerbanki DGGE Yes [235]
Dysidea avara, Agelas oroides, Chondrosia reniformis Pyrosequencing spp-specific Growth [213]
Coelocarteria singaporensis, Cinachyra sp Pyrosequencing; PICRUST Cyano yes [47]
Ocean warming and ocean acidification
X. muta Pyrosequencing and PICRUST; PAM fluorometry Yes yes [174]
Carteriospongia foliascens; R. odorabile; Stylissa flabelliformis; Cymbastella coralliophila PAM fluorometry yes Ecophysiology [183]
C. foliascens, C. coralliophila; Cliona orientalis, Coscinoderma matthewsi, S. flabelliformis Illumina; PAM fluorometry spp-specific no Ecophysiology [170]
Cymbastela stipitata Pyrosequencing on DNA and cDNA No [169]
Haliclona cymaeoformis Pyrosequencing; metagenomics Yes yes [176]
I. basta DGGE No [173]
R. odorabile RFLP; FISH Yes [236]
Ocean warming and eutrophication
R. odorabile DGGE and pyrosequencing; DGGE of amoA gene No [167]
  1. Responses were assessed in aquarium experiments, except for reference [47]. Molecular analyses were performed on 16S rRNA gene, unless stated otherwise. Fun. function. Ref references, Spp-specific species-specific response. EMP pipeline standardized protocol applied during the global Sponge Microbiome Project following Earth Microbiome Project guidelines. TRFLP terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism, DGGE denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. RT-qPCR real-time quantitative PCR. PICRUST function was inferred from taxonomic diversity by PICRUST tool [237]. PAM fluorometry pulse amplitude modulated diving fluorometer as measurement of photosynthetic capacity