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Table 1 Core functions of the sponge microbiome

From: The sponge holobiont in a changing ocean: from microbes to ecosystems

  Core function Interpretation Reference
Metabolic features Nitrogen metabolism with emphasis on ammonia oxidation Utilization of environmental and host-derived nutrients Reviewed in [77]
Carbon metabolism with emphasis on complex carbohydrates Utilization of environmental and host-derived nutrients [32, 33]
Nitrogen and carbon metabolism utilizing creatinine Utilization of environmental and host-derived nutrients [35, 53]
Vitamin synthesis (especially thiamine and vitamin B12) Overproduction of vitamins that are then utilized by the sponge host [31, 53, 72]
Secondary metabolism Microbe-microbe interaction, defense of the holobiont  
Carnitine (vitamin BT) utilization Utilization of host-derived component [33]
Defense features CRISPR-Cas systems Defense against viruses/phages [31, 33, 61]
Toxin-antitoxin systems Defense against foreign DNA [31, 33, 61]
Restriction modification systems Defense against foreign DNA [31, 33, 61]
Eukaryotic-like protein domains phagocytosis evasion [31, 54, 81,82,83]
Modifications of the lipopolysaccharide phagocytosis evasion [83, 84]
Other Mobile genetic elements and transposases Increased levels of horizontal gene transfer [31, 53, 61, 85]