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Fig. 2 | Microbiome

Fig. 2

From: The sponge holobiont in a changing ocean: from microbes to ecosystems

Fig. 2

The sponge holobiont as an example of the concept of nested ecosystems. Key functions carried out by the microbiome (colored arrows) influence holobiont functioning and, through cascading effects, subsequently influence community structure and ecosystem functioning. Environmental factors act at multiple scales to alter microbiome, holobiont, community, and ecosystem scale processes. Thus, factors that alter microbiome functioning can lead to changes at the holobiont, community, or even ecosystem level and vice versa, illustrating the necessity of considering multiple scales when evaluating functioning in nested ecosystems. DOM, dissolved organic matter; POM, particulate organic matter; DIN, dissolved inorganic nitrogen

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