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Table 4 Unadjusted and multivariate associations of nasal swab microbiota profiles with bronchiolitis severity outcomes

From: The association between anterior nares and nasopharyngeal microbiota in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis

  Unadjusted models Adjusted models*
Severity outcomes OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
1) Intensive care use
 All profiles
  Haemophilus-dominant profile 6.20 (2.3818.28) < 0.001 6.43 (2.25–20.51) < 0.001
  Moraxella-dominant profile Reference   Reference  
  Staphylococcus-dominant profile 2.54 (1.14–6.78) 0.04 2.17 (0.93–5.98) 0.10
  Corynebacterium-dominant profile 3.75 (1.52–10.62) 0.007 4.15 (1.59–12.37) 0.005
  Enterobacter-dominant profile 4.51 (1.68–13.53) 0.004 4.84 (1.67–15.46) 0.004
  Mixed profile 3.86 (1.59–10.85) 0.005 3.37 (1.29–9.99) 0.02
Haemophilus vs. all others
  Combined non-Haemophilus profiles Reference   Reference  
  Haemophilus-dominant profile 2.21 (1.173.99) 0.01 2.48 (1.195.03) 0.01
Moraxella vs. All others
  Combined non-Moraxella profiles Reference   Reference  
  Moraxella-dominant profile 0.30 (0.110.64) 0.01 0.32 (0.120.72) 0.01
2) Hospital length of stay ≥ 5 days
 All profiles
  Haemophilus-dominant profile 3.57 (1.528.77) 0.004 4.31 (1.7311.11) 0.002
  Moraxella-dominant profile Reference   Reference  
  Staphylococcus-dominant profile 1.43 (0.72–3.09) 0.33 1.24 (0.61–2.75) 0.57
  Corynebacterium-dominant profile 2.03 (0.91–4.76) 0.09 2.02 (0.86–4.95) 0.11
  Enterobacter-dominant profile 1.45 (0.52–3.89) 0.46 1.37 (0.48–3.83) 0.55
  Mixed profile 1.75 (0.78–4.11) 0.18 1.72 (0.73–4.20) 0.22
  1. Significant results of interest are in italics
  2. Patient level variables include age at hospitalization, sex, race/ethnicity, gestational age, number of previous breathing problems (i.e., infant having cough that wakes him/her at night and/or causes emesis or when the child has wheezing or shortness of breath without cough), daycare attendance, presence of other children living in home, history of antibiotic use (i.e., infant has taken antibiotics at any time prior to hospitalization), history of corticosteroid use (i.e., infant has taken corticosteroids, inhaled or systemic, at any time prior to hospitalization), use of antibiotics during the pre-hospitalization visit (i.e., infant received antibiotics during pre-admission), and respiratory viruses detected by PCR
  3. CI, confidence interval, OR, odds ratio
  4. *Mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for 11 patient-level variables with collection site as a random effect