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Table 2 Bacterial ecosystems characteristics identified from the pancreatic cyst fluids using PCR, Sanger sequencing, and next-generation sequencing (NGS)

From: Pancreatic cyst fluid harbors a unique microbiome

Bacterial ecosystem characteristics
Patient characteristics IPMN (n = 27) MCN (n = 13) Others (n = 11) Pseudocysts (n = 9) Serous cystadenoma (n = 9)
16S rRNA PCR (universal 16S rRNA gene primers) Bacteria present 92.6% 100% 90.9% 88.9% 88.9%
Bacteria absent 7.4% 0.0% 9.1% 11.1% 11.1%
Sanger sequencing Bacteria detected Bacillus spp. Fusobacterium spp., Orpinomyces spp. Anaerococcus spp., Caldimonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Bacillus spp. Fusobacterium spp., Bacillus spp., Orpinomyces spp., Microcystis spp., Staphylococcus spp. Fusobacterium spp. Caldimonas spp., Propionibacterium spp., Fusobacterium spp., Curvibacter spp., Escherichia spp., Bacillus spp. Arthrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Bacteroides spp., Ruminococcus spp.
16S rRNA (NGS) (n = 33) Bacteria present 100% (n = 9) 100% (n = 7) NA 100% (n = 8) 100% (n = 9)
Bacteria detected by 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 variable region NSG (n = 33) Bacteroides—15.45%
Escherichia/Shigella—9.88%
Faecalibacterium—8.57%
Acidaminococcus—5.75%
Sphingomonas—4.87%
Others—55.49%
Bacteroides—17.06%
Escherichia/Shigella—10.17%
Faecalibacterium—6.95%
Acidaminococcus—5.22%
Sphingomonas—6.48%
Others—54.12%
NA Bacteroides—16.59%
Escherichia/Shigella—10.55%
Faecalibacterium—6.81%
Acidaminococcus—6.23%
Sphingomonas—5.40%
Others—54.42%
Bacteroides—16.73%
Escherichia/Shigella—9.97%
Faecalibacterium—6.64%
Acidaminococcus—6.24%
Sphingomonas—4.81%
Others—55.62%
  1. NA not applicable