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Table 1 Studies investigating aging and the gut microbiome humans

From: (Dis)Trust your gut: the gut microbiome in age-related inflammation, health, and disease

Study N Population Age Age-affected microbiota Age effect Additional details
Hopkins et al. (2002) [130] 15 British 21–34 years
67-88 years
67–73 years CDAD
Bacteroides species diversity
Bifidobacteria species diversity

CDAD patients had greater diversity lactobacilli/clostridia but reducted bacteriodes, prevotella, and bifidobacteria
Hayashi et al. (2003) [131] 6 Japanese 79–84 yearsa Clostridium rRNA subcluster XIVa
Bifidobacteria #
Ruminoccoccus obeum
Woodmansey et al. (2004) [132] 28 British 19–35 years
67–75 years
73–101 years HE
Bifidobacteria (no. and diversity)
Hospitalized patients displayed age-related changes along with increased proteolytic bacteria no. and diversity
Van Tongeren et al. (2005) [74] 23 Dutch 70–100 years N/A N/A High frailty scores associated with reduced lactobacilli, bacteroides, prevotella no.; increased enterobacteria
Biagi et al. (2010) [70] 84 Italian 25–40 years
59–78 years
99–104 years
Clostridium cluster XIVa

Young and elderly showed similar microbiota, while differences observed in centenarians only.
Claesson et al. (2011) [72] 170 Irish 28–46 years
>65 years
Clostridium cluster IV

Claesson et al. (2012) [73] 191 Irish 28–46 years
64–102 years
N/A N/A Microbiota composition clustered by diet and residence location + significantly correlated with frailty, co-morbidity, and inflammation
Rampelli et al. (2013) [71] 9 Italian 38–102 years Bacterial DNA gene expression for:
short-chain fatty acid production
Proteolytic functions

Jeffery et al. (2016) [40] 371 Irish 64–102 years N/A N/A Longitudinal samples revealed temporal instability of microbiota
Low microbial diversity associated with greater temporal instability
Long-term care stays and antibiotic use associated with increased alterations in microbial composition and diversity
Jackson et al. (2016) [41] 1008 British
42–102 years N/A N/A Robust associations between frailty and gut microbiota
F. prausnitzii negatively associated
E. dolichum and E. lenta positively associated
Odamaki et al. (2016) [133] 367 Japanese 0–104 years Proteobacteria/Bacteroidetes

Cattaneo et al. (2017) [42] 83 Italian Mean ~ 70 yearsb N/A N/A Gut microbial populations and peripheral inflammatory cytokines associated with cognitive impairment and brain amyloidosis
  1. CDAD clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, aAge-effect compared to prior study of young adults; HE hospitalized elderly patients on antibotics, brange and overall mean for the full study not reported (reported by study group)